Crystallography around the world: France

France

 Association Française de Cristallographie web page  

Category IV

Adhering Body

Académie des Sciences (Institut de France)

Secretary of National Committee

M. GIORGI, Université Aix Marseille, Spectropole, Fédération des Sciences Chimiques de Marseille FR1739, Campus St Jérome, 52 av. Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13013 Marseille, France

National Committee

P. GUIONNEAU (Chair)
P. BORDET (Vice-Chair)
J. TIMMINS (Vice-Chair)
A. VAN DER LEE (Vice-Chair)
M. GIORGI (Secretary)
D. CABARET
A. DAUTANT
R. GUINEBRETIERE
J.-D. PEDELACQ
 S. PILLET (Treasurer)
C. SAUTER
O. THOMAS
K. ZAIDAT

This information last updated: 13 Feb 2017

The following crystallographers in France are registered in the World Directory of Crystallographers.

(IUCr) crystallographers in France

623 entries found

  • Abbas, Dr Mamatimin research assistant. UMR 5218 - IMS - Laboratoire de lIntégration du Matériau au Système, 351 Cours de la libération, 33405, Talence, France.
  • Abécassis, Dr Benjamin Research associate, CNRS. Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS, Université Paris Sud, Batiment 510, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Aberdam, Dr Daniel director of research, retired. Lab. Cristallographie - CNRS, 25 av. des Martyrs bât. F BP 166 Cedex 09, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Adel, Dr BEGHIDJA Maître de conférence. Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire, du Contrôle de l'Environnement et des mesures physico-chimiques (LACMOM), UMC Constantine, Route Ain El-bey, Algérie, 25000, Constantine, France.
  • Aghajari, Dr Nushin Banu Helene Director of Research at the CNRS Lyon, France. Laboratory for Biocrystallography and Structural Biology of Therapeutic Targets, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 7 Passage du Vercors, F-69367, Lyon, France.
  • Ahmed, Dr Haouz Head of Platform of Crystallography. Structural Biology and Chemistry, Institut Pasteur of Paris, 25 rue du Dr. Roux, 75724, Paris, France.
  • Aldon, Dr Laurent researcher. Lab. Physicochimie de la Matière Condensée - CNRS, Pl. E. bâtaillon, bât. 15, CC003, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.
  • Alzari, Professor Pedro M. Head of Unit. Unite de Biochimie Structurale, Institut Pasteur, 25, rue du Dr. Roux, 75724 Paris cedex 15, France.
  • Ambard, Dr Antoine research engineer. MMC, EDF, Avenue des Renardières, 77818, Moret Sur Loing, France.
  • Andreazza, Dr Pascal Assistant professor. Centre de Recherche sur la Matiere Divisée, CNRS Univ. d'Orleans, 45071 Orleans Cedex 02, France.
  • Anne, Dr Michel Researcher at CNRS. Lab. de Cristallographie - CNRS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble cedex 09, France.
  • Arnaud, Mrs Alexiane Arnaud PhD Student. 63 - 65 rue Henri Auguste Desbruères BP 87, 91003, Evry CEDEX, France.
  • Arnoux, Dr Pascal PI. IBEB, CEA Cadarache, 13108, Saint Paul lez Durance, France.
  • Ascone, Dr Isabella Scientist. Charles Friedel, UMR CNRS 7223, 11, rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 PARIS Cedex 05, Paris, France.
  • Aubert, Dr Emmanuel Maître de Conférence, LCM3B UMR CNRS7036, Nancy-Université. Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Modélisation des Matériaux Minéraux et Biologiques, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
  • Audebrand, Professor Dr Nathalie Professor. University or Rennes 1, Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes - UMR 6226, Ecole Supérieure d'Ingénieurs de Rennes, Bât. 10 B, 263 Avenue du Général Leclerc, Rennes, France, 35042, France.
  • Aumonier, Mr Sylvain PhD Student. Structural Biology Group, ESRF, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS40220, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Authier, Professor André Professor Emeritus. Villechenine, 87470 Peyrat-le-Chateau, France.
  • Averbuch, Dr Marie-Thérèse full-time researcher, retired. LEDSS, Univ. J. Fourier, 301 rue de la ChimieDomaine Univ. - St Martin d'HèresBP 53 Cedex 09, 38041, Grenoble, France.
  • Ayache, Dr Jeanne researcher. Centre de Spectroscopie Nucléaire et Spectrométrie de Masse - CNRS, bât. 108, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Babonneau, Dr David Research scientist. Institut Pprime, CNRS, Bvd M. & P. Curie, BP 30149, 86960, Futuroscope Chasseneuil, France.
  • Bachet, Bernard retired, former research ingenior. Univ. P. et M. Curie et Paris 7, Lab. de Minéralogie-Cristallographie URA009 CNRS place Jussieu 5, 4, Paris, France.
  • Badens, Dr Elisabeth researcher. M2P2, UMR 6181, CNRS, Aix Marseille University, -, Aix en Provence, France.
  • Bagieu, Dr Muriel maître de conférences, retired. Lab. de Cristallographie, 25 avenue des Martyrs, BP 166 Cedex 09, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Baldinozzi, Dr Gianguido CNRS. Lab. SPMS, UMR 8580 CNRS-ECP, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry cedex, France.
  • Ballou, Dr Rafik scientist. Institut Néel, CNRS, 25 av. des martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Barbier, Dr Antoine Researcher. DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC, CEA/Saclay, Bât. 462, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France.
  • Barrallier, Professor Laurent Full Professor. MSMP Lab., ENSAM, 2 cours des Arts et Métiers, F-13617 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 1, France.
  • Barrier, Dr Nicolas research assistant. Laboratoire de Cristallographie et Science des Matériaux, 6, boulevard du Maréchal Juin, Cedex 4, 14050, Caen, France.
  • Baruchel, Dr Jose X-ray Imaging group leader. ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex, France.
  • Bataille, Dr Thierry researcher. Sciences Chimiques de Rennes UMR CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Avenue du Général Leclerc, 35042, RENNES, France.
  • Baudet-Maze, Dr Mona responsible for X-ray laboratory, retired. CNET, 2 av. Pierre Marzin, 22307 Lannion Cedex, France.
  • Bavoux, Dr Claude Maitre de Conférence, retired. Lab. de Cristallographie, Univ. Claude Bernard, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622, Villeurbanne, France.
  • BEAUDHUIN, Dr MICKAEL Post-doctorate. Quartier firmy, 26600, MERCUROL, France.
  • Becker, Dr Paul crystal growth leader. Centre Lorrain Opt. Electron. Solide, Univ. de Metz, 2 rue Edouard Belin, 57078 Metz, France.
  • BELRHALI, Dr Hassan BM14 Beamline Responsible. EMBL Grenoble Outstation, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Benard-Rocherulle, Dr Patricia Maitre de Conférences. Laboratoire de Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moléculaire/ UMR CNRS 6511, Institute of Chemistry, University of Rennes I, Avenue du Génaral Leclerc, Bretagne, 35000, Rennes, France.
  • Benas, Dr Philippe X-ray and computing facilities manager. UMR 8015 - CNRS, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris Descartes, Case 48, 4, Avenue de l'Observatoire, F75270 PARIS CEDEX 06.
  • BENDEIF, Dr El-Eulmi Lecturer. Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisation CRM2. UMR 7036, Institut Jean Barriol, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Boulevard des Aiguillettes/ BP 70239, 54506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
  • Bentley, Dr Graham A. head of unit. Unité d'Immunologie Structurale, Institut Pasteur, 25 rue du Dr Roux, 75724 Paris Cedex 15, France.
  • Berar, Dr Jean-Francois D2AM CRG beamline at ESRF, retired. Institut Neel, CNRS, av. des martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Berbezier, Dr Isabelle researcher. CRMC2-CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.
  • Berenguer, Dr Felisa Beamline Scientist. Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91192, Saint Aubin, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Berhault, Dr Gilles scientific researcher. Institute of Research on Catalysis, CNRS, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, 69100, Villeurbanne, France.
  • Bernasconi, Dr Andrea PostDoc. ID11 Beamline, ESRF, -, -, Grenoble, France.
  • Bessière, Dr Michel Director of Synchrotron Radiation Department at LURE. LURE CNRS/CEA/MENESRIP, bât. 209D, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
  • Bienfait, Professor Michel professor emeritus. Univ. de la Méditerranée, CRMC2-CNRS Faculté des Sciences de Luminy Case 901, 13288, Marseille, France.
  • Billiet, Professor Yves professor. 8 place de Jonquilles, F-29860, Borg-Blanc, France.
  • Biou, Dr Valerie PI. IBPC, CNRS, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Blakeley, Dr Matthew Paul LADI-III Instrument Scientist, Institut Laue-Langevin. Large Scale Structures group, Institut Laue Langevin, 71, Avenue des Martyrs, Isere, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Böcskei, Dr Zsolt staff crystallographer. Sanofi-Synthelabo Recherche, 16 rue d'Ankara, 67000 Strasbourg, France.
  • Boissy, Dr Guillaume PhD. -, -, Paris, France.
  • Bonello, Dr Bernard researcher. LMDH, Univ. P. et M. Curie, boîte 136, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Bonnefond, Dr Luc Maître de conférences. Caverelli Team, IGBMC, CNRS UMR 7104 - Inserm U 964, 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404, Illkirch, France.
  • Bonnet, Dr Michel Ingenieur CEA. CEA, DRFMC/DIR 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Bonnete, Dr Francoise Permanent scientist. IBMM, CNRS, Rue Mouis Pasteur/33, 84000, Avignon, France.
  • Borbély, Dr András Directeur de recherche. Centre SMS, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne, 158, cours Fauriel F-42023, SAINT-ÉTIENNE cedex 2.
  • Bordet, Dr Pierre Directeur de Recherches CNRS. Institut Neel - CNRS, departement MCMF, Bat F, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Bosak, Dr Alexei beamline scientist. experimental division, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, Isere, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Botet, Dr Robert senior reseracher. LPS - Université Paris-Sud, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Boucher, Dr Florent researcher. Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, Institut des Matériaux Jean ROuxel, UMR CNRS 6502, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex, France.
  • Boucherle, Dr Jean-Xavier research director. CEA, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Bouckaert, Dr Julie postdoctoral researcher. Unite? de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, Universit?e Lille1, UMR 8576 du CNRS, 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
  • Bouillot, Professor Jacques group leader, retired. Faculté Annecienne de Sciences et Techniques, av. de la Plaine, 41, Annecy, France.
  • Bourgeois, Dr Dominique researcher. Lab. Cristallographie Cristallogénèse des Protéines, UPR 9015, IBS, 41 av. des Martyrs, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 01, France.
  • Bourguet, Dr William Research director. Centre de Biochimie Structurale, 29 rue de Navacelles, 34090 Montpellier, France.
  • Bourret, Dr Alain Marie retired. CEA Grenoble DRFMC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs Cedex 9, 38054, Grenoble, France.
  • Boutin, Dr Jean Albert Directeur de al Prospective. PEX Rechercehs et Biopharmacie, Institut de Rechercehs Internationales SERVIER, 50 rue Carnot, 92150, Suresnes, France.
  • BOUVIER, Dr Pierre researcher. MCMF, Institut Néel, 25 rue des Martyrs, BP166, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Bouyer, Dr Frédéric postdoc. EDF - Site des Renardières, Chimie Corrosion - EMA5, Route de Sens, BP 1, 77250, Moret-sur-Loing, France.
  • Bowler, Dr Matthew William Beamline Scientist. European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 71 Ave des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Bravin, Dr Alberto Group leader. ID17, ESRF, BP220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Brennich, Dr Martha Elisabeth Beamline Scientist. BM29, Structural Biology Group, ESRF, 71 Avenues des Martyres, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Brocco, Mr Benjamin PhD Student. Life Sciences, Institut Laue Langevin, 71 Avenue des martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Brooks, Dr Mark Post-Doc. IBBMC, Université Paris Sud, Bâtiment 430, Faculté d'Orsay, Essonne, 91400, Orsay, France.
  • Broutin, Dr Isabelle CR1. Lab. de Cristallographie et RMN biologiques, Faculte de Pharmacie - CNRS, 4 av. de l'Observatoire, 75270 PARIS, France.
  • Brown, Dr P. Jane retired. ILL, av. des Martyrs, BP 156 Cedex 9, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Brunelli, Dr Michela Instrument Scientist. SNBL/ESRF, CS40220, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Brunie, Dr Simone retired, former group leader. Unité de recherches de Biochimie et Structures des Protéines, Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, -, 78352, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
  • Budayova-Spano, Dr Monika Assistant Professor. Synchrotron Group, Institut de Biologie Structurale, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Buratto, Mr Jeremie Postdoctoral Researcher. Medicine, Karolinksa Institutet, Solna (MedS), K2, SE-171 77, Stockholm, France.
  • Burggraf, Professor Charles group leader. Lab. de Cristallographie, 1 rue Blessig, 67000, Strasbourg, France.
  • Burmeister, Professor Wilhelm P. Structural biology. Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UJF-EMBL-CNRS UMI3265, BP 181, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Cabaret, Professor Dr Delphine Professor. Institut de Minéralogie, de Physique des Matériaux et de Cosmochimie, University of Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005, case 115, France.
  • Cairns, Dr Andrew B. Postdoctoral Fellow. Matter at Extremes group (ID27), ESRF, -, -, Grenoble, France.
  • Callebaut, Dr Isabelle CR2 CNRS. Lab. de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, Univ. Paris 6/7, Paris 5, France.
  • Calvarin, Dr Gilbert lab. director. URA 453 au CNRS, Ecole Centrale de Paris, F 92295 Châtenay Malabry Cedex, France.
  • Capelle, Dr Bernard group Leader. Laboratoire de Mineralogie-Cristallographie, Tour 26, deuxième etage, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Caracas, Dr Razvan charge de recherche CR1 - CNRS. Laboratoire de Sciences de la Terre CNRS UMR 5570, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46, allée d'Italie, 69364, Lyon cedex 07, France.
  • Casadei, Ms Cecilia Ph. D. student. Large Scale Structures, Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Castelnau, Dr Olivier Research. PIMM, CNRS, ENSAM, 151 Bd de l'hopital, 75013, Paris, France.
  • Castro, Dr German Rafael Head of the Spanish CRG beamline. G.R. CASTRo, SpLine at The ESRF, 6, Jules Horowitz; ESRF B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 09, FRANCE.
  • Cavarelli, Professor Jean professor. IGBMC, Parc d'Innovation, BP 163, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France.
  • Celia, Dr Herve research ingeneer. Herve Celia, ESBS UMR 7175, Dept Recepteurs et Proteines Membranaires, Bd Sebastien Brandt, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.
  • Cerclier, Dr Olivier retired. service commun de RX case 29, Univ. de Provence, 3 place victor hugo, Cédex 03, 13331, Marseille, France.
  • Cersoy, Dr Sophie Research and Teaching Assistant. Institut Néel, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs - BP 166, 38402, Grenoble cedex 9, France.
  • Chamard, Dr Virginie researcher. Institut Fresnel UMR 7249, Aix-Marseille Université, Avenue Escadrille Normandie Niemen, 13397, Marseille, France.
  • Chambrier, Dr Marie-Hélène Assistant professor. Faculté Jean Perrin, UCCS Artois, 23 rue J. Souvraz, 62300, Lens, France.
  • Channagiri, Mr Jayanth Research Fellow. Science of Ceramic Processes and Surface Treatments (SPCTS), European Center for Ceramics, 12 rue Atlantis, 87000, Limoges, France.
  • Chantalat, Dr Laurent Head of Laboratory. Structural Biology, 635, Rte des Lucioles, BP 87 F-06902 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, France.
  • chaptal, Dr vincent Research Scientist. BMSSI : Bases Moléculaires et Structurales des Systèmes Infectieux, IBCP - UMR 5086, 7 Passage du Vercors, 69 367, Lyon cedex 07, France.
  • Charbonnier, Dr Jean-Baptiste researcher. Laboratoire de Biologie Structurale et Radiobiologie, IBITECS, CEA, -, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, CE-Saclay, France.
  • Chateigner, Professor Dr Daniel Professor. CRISMAT-ENSICAEN, UMR CNRS n° 6508, 6 Bd. Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen, FRANCE.
  • Chatterji (Chattopadhyay), Dr Tapan Kumar scientist, retired. Science, Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156 Cedex, Isere, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Chaud, Dr Xavier research engineer. CNRS/CRETA, 25 av. des Martyrs, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Chaudhari, Dr Sachin Post doctoral Fellow. Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance, CEA, France, 17 Avenue des Martyrs Bâtiment 51C Office P.132a / Lab P.138, France, 38054, Grenoble, France.
  • Chavas, Dr Leonard Michel Gabriel Assistant Professor. -, Synchrotron Soleil, -, -, -, France.
  • Chenavas, Professor Jean professor, retired. Lab. Cristallographie -, CNRS, 25 av. des Martyrs, bât. FBP 166 Cedex 09, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Cherfils, Dr Jacqueline ?. Lab. d'Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Chernyshov, Dr Dmitry beam-line responsible. BM01A, SNBL at ESRF, BP 220, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Chevrier, Dr Bernard retired. IGBMC, BP 163, 67404, Illkirch, France.
  • Chomilier, Dr Jacques Senior Scientist. IMPMC, Universite Pierre & Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75, Paris, France.
  • Chumakov, Dr Andrey Petrovich Postdoctoral Researcher. ID10 Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 71, avenue des Martyrs, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Claiser, Dr Nicolas Lecturer. CRM2, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, B.P. 70239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
  • CLARISSE, Miss Jade PhD. Université Claude Bernard 1, 7 rue Grignard, Bat. Chevreul, 1er etage, 69100, Villeurbanne, France.
  • Clavel, Dr Damien Liaison Scientist at the High Throughput Crystallization Facility. EMBL Grenoble Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Cobessi, Dr David Researcher. IBS, CNRS, 41, Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Coelho, Dr Cristina Scientist. Laboratoire Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Paris, Collège de France, -, Paris, France.
  • Cohen-Addad, Dr Claudine Former of Research, CNRS, retired. Institut de Biologie Structurale, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Collet, Professor Eric Professor. Instut de Physique de rennes, University Rennes 1, Campus de beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France.
  • Collings, Dr Ines E. Postdoctoral Researcher. ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue Des Martyrs, -, Grenoble, France.
  • Colloc'h, Dr Nathalie CNRS researcher. CI-NAPS UMR 6232 UCBN CNRS, centre Cyceron, Bd. Becquerel, 14074 Caen cedex.
  • Colmont, Dr Marie Associate Professor. UCCS - Unité de Catalyse et de Chmie du Solide, ENSCL - Bât C7, avenue Mendeleïev, FRANCE, 59652, VILLENEUVE D ASCQ, France.
  • Comes, Dr Robert Director. LURE, bât. 209D, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
  • Contreras-García, Dr Julia Researcher. Laboratoire De Chimie Theorique, Sorbonne University, 4 Pl Jussieu Cc 137, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Cortijo Montes, Dr Miguel Postdoctoral fellow. Centre Recherche Paul Pascal, 115, Avenue Dr Albert Schweitzer, 33600, Pessac, France.
  • Coste, Dr Franck CNRS research engineer. CENTRE DE BIOPHYSIQUE MOLECULAIRE, CNRS, Rue Charles Sadron, 45071 Cedex 2 Orléans, France.
  • Courcelle, Dr Emmanuel system manager. CNRS-CEMES-IPBS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France.
  • Cousson, Dr Alain chercheur. CEA/CNRS, Laboratory Leon Brillouin, CE Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette cedex, France.
  • Crichton, Dr Wilson A. Beamline Scientist. Wilson A. Crichton, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble CEDEX, France.
  • Cuello, Dr Gabriel Julio Scientist, research. Dr. Gabriel Cuello, Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble, FRANCE.
  • Curis, Mr Emmanuel Maître de conférences. Laboratoire de biomathématique, Faculté de pharmacie, université Paris V, 4, avenue de l'observatoire, 75006, Paris, France.
  • Czjzek, Mrs Mirjam researcher. Station Biologique de Roscoff, Végétaux Marins et Biomolécules, UMR7139, CNRS and UPMC, BP74, Place george Teissier, 29682, Roscoff cedex, France.
  • d'Acapito, Dr Francesco Beamline responsible. CNR-IOM OGG c/o ESRF - GILDA CRG, 6 rue jules horowitz / B.P. 220, F-38043, grenoble, France.
  • Dahan, Dr Françoise retired, former research engineer. Lab. Chimie de Coordination, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne Cedex, 31077, Toulouse, France.
  • Dan, Mr Liu PhD student. Physics of Metal, Science et Ingénierie des MAtériaux et Procédés, University of Joseph Fourier, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402, ST MARTIN D HERES, France.
  • Daran, Dr Jean-Claude Emeritus Research Director. Lab. de Chimie de Coordination, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse Cedex, France.
  • Dartyge, Professor Elisabeth retired. LURE, bât. 209D, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex, France.
  • da Silva, Dr Julio Physicist. X-ray NanoProbe group, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), ID16A beamline, Isère, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • da Silveira Tome, Miss Catarina PhD Student. Institut de Biologie Structurale, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, Grenoble, 38044, Grenoble, France.
  • Dautant, Dr Alain Researcher. IBGC CNRS, Universite Bordeaux 2, 1 rue Camille Saint-Saens, 33077 BORDEAUX, France.
  • D'Avitaya, Professor François professor. CRMC2-CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France.
  • de Bergevin, Dr François research scientist (retired). 33 Allée de la Grande Vigne, 38240, Meylan, France.
  • de Boissieu, Dr Marc Researcher. SIMaP, 1130 Rue de la Piscine, BP 75, 38402, St Martin d Heres, France.
  • De la Mora, Dr Eugenio Profesor de Asignatura A. Institut de Biologie structurale, 71 avenue des Martyrs, Rhone Alpes, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Delettré, Dr Jean retired. Lab. de Minéralogie-CristallographieCNRS, Univ. P. et M. Curie et Paris VII, 4 place Jussieu, Case 115 Cedex 05, 75252, Paris, France.
  • Delfosse, Dr Vanessa Postdoctoral Fellow. Centre de Biochimie Structurale, 29 rue de Navacelles, 34090, Montpellier, France.
  • Dellicour, Miss Aline PhD student. CRISMAT, 6, Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14000, Caen, France.
  • Demé, Dr Bruno staff scientist. Large Scale Structures group, Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042, PB 156 - Grenoble cedex 9, France.
  • Denoyer, Dr Françoise Directeur de Recherches au CNRS, retired. Lab. Physique des Solides, bât. 510, Univ. d'Orsay, 91405 Orsay, France.
  • de Ruyck, Dr Jerome Associate Professor. Biology, Universite Lille 1 - UGSF, 50 avenue de Halley, 59658, Lille, France.
  • de Sanctis, Dr Daniele Scientist. Structural Biology, ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Av des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • De Sousa Mota, Mr Cristiano Postdoc at ESRF. ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz - BP 220, Grenoble, France.
  • Despujols, Professor Jacques emeritus professor. Univ. de Reims-Champagne-Ardenne, LASSI Faculté des Sciences BP 347, 51052, Reims Cedex, France.
  • Dessen, Dr Philippe former director of research. Service de Bioinformatique, CNRS-INSERM, 7 rue Guy Moquet, BP 94801, Villejuif, France.
  • Detlefs, Dr Carsten staff scientist. Experiments Division, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • DEUTSCH, Dr Maxime Assitant Professor. CRM2, BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
  • Dewhurst, Dr Charles David Instrument Scientist. Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • de Wijn, Mr Raphael PhD student. Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IBMC), Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 15 rue R. Descartes, F-67084, Strasbourg, France.
  • Dideberg, Dr Otto group Leader, retired. Institut de Biologie Structurale, Lab. Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, 41 av. Horowitz Cedex 1, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • DIDIERJEAN, Dr CLAUDE Lecturer. LCM3B, Nancy Université, BP 239, 54506, Vandeouvre lès Nancy, France.
  • DMITRIEV, Professor Dr Vladimir Director. Swiss-Norwegian Beam Lines, European Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Donnio, Dr Bertrand Researcher. Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg (IPCMS), CNRS-University of Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, 67038, Strasbourg, France.
  • Dubourg, Dr Antoine retired. Groupe de Biochimie Structurale, Faculté de Pharmacie, av. Charles Flahaut, 34060, Montpellier, France.
  • Ducruix, Professor Arnaud Vice president. Laboratoire de Cristallographie et RMN Biologiques, UMR 8015 CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, Case 48, 4, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75270 Paris cedex 06, FRANCE.
  • Duffar, Professor Dr Thierry Professor. SIMAP, Grenoble University, BP 75, 38402, Saint Martin d'Heres, France.
  • Dumas, Dr Philippe Scientist. IBMC-UPR9002, CNRS, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084, Strasbourg, France.
  • Dumy, Professor Pascal Directeur de Recherche. UMR 5616, UFR CHIMIE, 301 rue de la chimie, BP 53 Cedex 09, 38041, Grenoble, France.
  • Dunstetter, Dr Frédéric researcher. Lab. des Solides Irradiés, Ecole Polytechnique, 91191 Palaiseau Cedex, France.
  • Durand, Dr Pierrick research engineer. UMR 7036 / CRM2, Université de Nancy 1, BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
  • Durif, Dr André retired, director of research. LEDSS - Univ. J. Fourier, 301 rue de la Chimie, Domaine Univ., St Martin d'Heres.
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  • Epelboin, Professor Yves Emeritus professor. IMPMC, Univ. P. et M. Curie, 4 place Jussieu, Case 115, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Eric, Dr Durand Postdoctoral researcher. LISM, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, France, 13402, Marseille cedex 20, France.
  • Espinosa, Dr Enrique Associate Professor. Lab. Cristallographie et Modélisation des Matériaux Minéraux et Biologiques, URA CNRS no. 809, Univ. Henri Poincaré, Nancy 1, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex, France.
  • Estienne, Dr Jacques Maître de conférences. PIIM, Univ. de Provence, Centre de Saint Jérôme, FRANCE, 13397, MARSEILLE, France.
  • Evain, Professor Dr Michel Professor. MIOPS, CMCE3, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel, 2 rue de la Houssinière BP 32229, 44322, Nantes, France.
  • Evans, Dr Jack D. post-doctoral researcher. Équipe Chimie Théorique et Modélisation, Chimie ParisTech, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Eymery, Dr Joel Researcher. CEA-CNRS-UJF group "Nanophysics and Semiconductors", Grenoble Alpes University, INAC-SP2M-NPSC, Bât. C5, 38054 Grenoble, France.
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  • FAGART, Dr Jerome Researcher. Unit 693, INSERM, 63 rue Gabriel Peri, 94276, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France.
  • Fanchon, Dr Eric Researcher. TIMC-IMAG Laboratory, Faculté de Médecine, Hôpital Nord, bâtiment Taillefer / IN3S, 38706, La Tronche, France.
  • Faure, Professor René Professor. Sciences et Stratégies Analytiques, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bâtiment Jules Raulin, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.
  • FAVIER, Mrs Frederique Lecturer. CRM2 UMR-CNRS 7036, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Nancy Université, BP 70239 - Boulevard des Auguillettes, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
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  • Ferens, Mr Michal PhD student. Micalis UMR 1319, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomioque, Domaine de Vilvert, 78352, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
  • Fernandez-Diaz, Dr Maria Teresa physicist; responsible for instrument. Inst. Laue-Langevin, av. des Martyrs, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Fernandez-Martinez, Dr Alejandro Researcher. ISTerre, CNRS & University of Grenoble, Maison des Geosciences, 1381 rue de la Piscine, Isere, 38400, St Martin d'Heres, France.
  • Ferraris, Dr Cristiano Maitre de Conferences. Dr. Cristiano FERRARIS, Laboratoire de Minéralogie - USM0201, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 61 rue Buffon, 75005 PARIS - FRANCE.
  • Ferrer, Dr Jean-Luc ?. Lab. Cristallographie Cristallogénèse des Protéines - IBS, 41 av. des Martyrs, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • Ferron, Dr François CNRS Researcher. AFMB - POLYTECH Case 925, 163, Av de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09.
  • FERTEY, Dr Pierre Beamline scientist. Division Experiences, Synchrotron SOLEIL, BP 48, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
  • Filhol, Dr Alain engineer. ILL, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Fischer, Dr Henry Staff Physicist at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Henry Fischer, Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble cedex 9, FRANCE.
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  • Fitch, Andy beamline scientist. ESRF, CS40220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Florent, Mr Dubray Florent PhD student. ENSICAEN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen, France.
  • Flot, Dr David beamline scientist. European Molecular Biology laboratory, BP 181, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Fontaine, Dr Alain retired, former director of research. Lab. Louis Néel - CNRS, 25 av. des Martyrs bât. K BP 166 Cedex 09, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Fontecilla-Camps, Dr Juan Carlos head of laboratory. Metalloproteins Unit, IBS- CEA/CNRS/UJF, 71, Avenue des Martyrs, 38044, Grenoble, France.
  • Forsyth, Professor V. Trevor Professor of Biophysics. Partnership for Structural Biology, Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • FOURNIER, Dr Jean-Baptiste POst-Doc. UMR8227, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place G. Teissier, 29680, Roscoff, France.
  • Frapart, Mrs Isabelle Librarian. Rue Charles Sadron, ORLEANS, France.
  • Freund, Dr Andreas retired from ESRF. Via Cordis, 40 Rue de Lorraine, 33400, Talence, France.
  • Frey, Dr Michel retired, director of research. Lab. Cristallographie Cristallogénèse des Protéines, IBS, 41 av. des Martyrs Cedex, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Gaboriaud, Dr Christine Institut de Biologie Structurale, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Gailhanou, Dr Marc research engineer. LURE, bât. 209D, Centre Univ. Paris Sud, 91 405 Orsay Cedex, France.
  • Galez, Dr Philippe Lecturer. LAIMAN - ESIA, BP 806, 74016 Annecy.
  • Galy, Dr Jean Directeur de Recherche CNRS. CEMES/CNRS, BP 4347, 31055 Toulouse cedex 4, France.
  • Garnier, Dr Emmanuel Assistant Professor, retired. Emmanuel GARNIER, 16 rue Scheurer Kestner, 86000 POITIERS, FRANCE.
  • Garreau, Dr Yves maître de conférences. LURE, Centre Univ. Paris-Sud, bât. 209D, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex, France.
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  • Gaubicher, Dr Joel CNRS researcher. 2 Rue de la Houssiniere, 44000, Nantes, France.
  • Gauthier, Professor Jean-Pierre retired. University Claude Bernard, -, -, Lyon, France.
  • Gautier-Luneau, Professor Isabelle Professor. MCMF, Institut Neel, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Gazi, Dr Anastasia D. Post doc. LEBS, CNRS, Bâtiment 34, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Genoni, Dr Alessandro CNRS Researcher. Laboratory of Theorerical Physics and Chemistry, CNRS and University of Lorraine, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078, Metz, France.
  • Gense, Mr Frederic CRM2 (UMR UL-CNRS 7036). BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy CEDEX, France.
  • George, Dr Amand retired. Lab. Metallurgie Physique - Sciences des Materiaux, Ecole des Mines de Nancy URA 155 CNRS, Parc de Saurupt, 54042, Nancy, France.
  • Gérard, Mrs Charline PhD student. CINaM, Campus de Luminy case 913, 13288 cedex 9, Marseille, France.
  • Ghelis, Dr Marianne ?. Lab. de Minéralogie-Météorites Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 61 rue Buffon, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Ghermani, Professor Nour Eddine full professor. Laboratoire de Physique Pharmaceutique, Institut Galien Paris Sud UMR 8612, Université Paris Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, 5, Rue J.B. Clément, 92296 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex, FRANCE.
  • Gibaud, Professor Alain Professor. LPEC - CNRS, Univ. du Maine, Faculté des Sciences, Bd O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex09, France.
  • Giegé, Dr Richard Directeur de Recherche Emérite au CNRS. Machineries Traductionnelles, ARN, UPR 9002, IBMC du CNRS, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084, Strasbourg, France.
  • Gillet, Dr Jean-Michel Assistant professor. Physics, CentraleSupelec, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France.
  • Gillon, Dr Beatrice research director. Dr Beatrice Gillon, Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), Centre d'Etudes de Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Ginderow, Dr Daria retired. Lab. de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, URA 009 CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Giorgi, Dr Michel Research engineer. Spectropole, D11, Université Paul Cézanne, F.S.T. Saint Jerôme, av. Escadrille Normandie-Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20, France.
  • Giorgio, Dr Suzanne researcher. ESIL - Matériaux, Université d'Aix Marseille, Campus de Luminy, Case 925, Marseille, France.
  • Givord, Dr Françoise CNRS Scientist, retired. DRFMC/SPSMS/MDN, CEA/Grenoble, DRFMC/SPSMS/MDN, 38, Grenoble, France.
  • Glatzel, Dr Pieter Group Head. ESRF, CS40220, 38043, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Goethals, Mr Jules PhD student. Geomaterials, Laboratory of Geomaterials and Environment, 2 allée du Promontoire, 93160, Noisy le Grand, France.
  • Golhen, Dr Stephane Assistant Professor. Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226 University of Rennes 1/CNRS, 263 Av General Leclerc, 35042 Rennes Cedex, FRANCE.
  • Golinelli-Pimpaneau, Dr Beatrice research scientist. Labortoire de Chimie des Processus Biologiques, CNRS, Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005, Paris, France.
  • GOMES, Dr Sandrine postdoctorante. ENSCCF, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont Université, BP 10448, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
  • Gomes Guimaraes, Dr Beatriz Beamline Scientist. Beatriz Guimarães, Beamline Scientist PROXIMA I, Synchrotron SOLEIL, LOrme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192 GIF-SUR-YVETTE Cedex, France.
  • Goudeau, Dr Philippe researcher. Institut Pprime, UPR3346 CNRS - Université de Poitiers - ENSMA, Université de Poitiers, SP2MI, Téléport 2, Bvd Marie et Pierre Curie, BP 30179, 86962 Futuroscope Chasseneuil Cedex, France.
  • Gourdon, Dr André chargé de recherche. Molecular Electronic Group, CEMES, BP 4347, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31055, Toulouse, France.
  • Gourrier, Dr Aurelien Research Scientist. Materials, Optics & Techniques for Life Sciences, CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire de Physique - Bat. 87 - Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble, 38042, St Martin d'Heres, France.
  • Goyhenex, Dr Christine scientist. IPCMS - Département Surfaces et Interfaces (DSI), CNRS, 23, rue du Loess, F-67034, STRASBOURG C, France.
  • Graille, Dr Marc CNRS Research Director. Laboratoire de Biochimie, CNRS / Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128, PALAISEAU, France.
  • Grangeon, Dr Sylvain Researcher. D3E/SVP, BRGM (French Geological Survey), 3, avenue Claude Guillemin, 45060, Orléans, France.
  • Grangeon, Dr Sylvain Researcher. D3E/SVP, BRGM (French Geological Survey), 3, avenue Claude Guillemin, N/A, 45060, Orléans Cedex 2, France.
  • Gras, Mr Pierre PhD student. Phosphates, Pharmacotechnie, Biomatériaux, CIRIMAT, 4 allée Emile Monso - BP44362, 31030, Toulouse cedex 4, France.
  • Gratias, Dr Denis researcher. IRCP, Chimie-ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, France, 75005, PARIS, France.
  • Gravereau, Professor Pierre group leader, X-ray services. Lab. de Chimie du Solide du CNRS, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405, Talence Cedex, France.
  • Grifone, Mr Raphael thesis student. Experimental Division, ID01, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Guardado-Calvo, Dr Pablo Staff Scientist. Virologie, Institut Pasteur, Rue du doctour Roux, France, 75015, Paris, France.
  • Gueninchault, Mr Nicolas PhD Student. Centre des materiaux - ENSMP, 10 rue auguste desbrueres, 77127, Corbeil Essonnes, France.
  • Guesdon, Dr Anne Assistant professor. CRISMAT, ISMRA, 6 Bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050, Caen, France.
  • GUILLEN, Professor Dr Ronald Researcher-Teacher. Etat Mécanique et Microstructure, Institut de Recherche en Génie Civil et Mécanique (GeM), CRTT - 37, Bd de l'Université, 44600, Saint-Nazaire, France.
  • GUILLET, Dr Valerie Ingenieur de Recherche CNRS. Groupe de Biophysique Structurale, IPBS - CNRS (UMR 5089), 205, Route de Narbonne, France, 31077, Toulouse cedex 04, France.
  • Guillin, Dr Jacques Product manager. Bruker AXS SAS, 4 Allee Hendrick Lorentz, 77420 Champs sur Marne, France.
  • GUILLOT, Professor Dr Benoit Professor. CRM2 : Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modelisations, Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, UMR CNRS-7036, BP 70239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, F54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
  • Guinebretiere, Professor Rene Professor on condensed matter physics. Université de Limoges, SPCTS UMR 7315 CNRS, 12 rue Atlantis 87068 Limoges, France.
  • Guionneau, Professor Philippe Professor in Crystallography. Institute of Condensed Matter Chemistry of Bordeaux, 87 av Dr A. Schweitzer, 33608, Pessac, France.
  • Gukasov, Dr Arsen single crystal diffraction group leader. Leon Brillouin Laboratory, CEA, CE de Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette, France.
  • Hagege, Dr Serge senior staff scientist (CNRS DR). CNRS - CECM 15 rue George Urbain, 94407, Vitry-sur-Seine, France.
  • Haines, Dr Julien researcher. Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR CNRS 5253, Université Montpellier II, Place E. Bataillon cc1504, 34095 Montpellier cedex 5, France.
  • Halet, Dr Jean-François CNRS Director of Research. Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes UMR 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042, Rennes, France.
  • Hansen, Dr Thomas Christian Staff Scientist, Instrument Responsible, Local Contact. Science Division / Diffraction Group, Institut Max von Laue-Paul Langevin, ILL4-138, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Härtwig, Professor Dr Jürgen Head of ESRF Crystal Laboratory. -, -, France.
  • Haser, Dr Richard Emeritus Director of research at CNRS. Lab. de Bio-Cristallographie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 7, Passage du Vercors, F-69367, Lyon, France.
  • Haupt, Dr Melina Research Associate. ILL - LSS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Heidari Khajepour, Dr Mohammad Yaser R&D and Robotic Engineer. ALPROBOTIC SARL, 4 Rue Joliot Curie, 38320, Eybens, France.
  • Hernandez, Dr Olivier Jean Maître de Conférences. Chimie du Solide et Inorganique Moléculaire, UMR 6511 CNRS - Université de Rennes 1, Campus de Beaulieu, avenue du Général Leclerc, Bretagne, 35042, Rennes, France.
  • Hewat, Dr Alan W. Director, NeutronOptics Grenoble. Dr Alan Hewat, NeutronOptics, 8 Allée des Pampres, 38640 Claix, FRANCE.
  • Hewat, Dr Elizabeth researcher. Inst. de Biologie Structurale, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • Hiess, Dr Arno scientist. DS-TAS, Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Hodeau, Dr Jean Louis Directeur de Recherche CNRS; group leader. Institut Néel, CNRS 25 avenue des martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble, France.
  • Honkimäki, Dr Veijo senior scientist. Veijo Honkimäki, ESRF, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble cedex, France.
  • Hospital, Dr Michel retired. Univ. Bordeaux I, Lab. de Cristallographie, 33405, Talence, France.
  • Houdusse, Dr Anne M. Group Leader - CNRS - DR1. Equipe Motilite Structurale, UMR 144 du CNRS, INSTITUT CURIE - Section de recherche, 26, rue d'ULM, 75248 Paris cedex 05, France.
  • Housset, Dr Dominique team leader. Institut de Biologie Structurale J.-P. Ebel, CEA-CNRS-UJF, 41, rue Jules Horowitz, F-38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • Hug, Dr Gilles Research Director. ONERA, 29 av. de la Division Leclerc, BP 72, 92322 Châtillon Cedex, France.
  • Ilakovac, Vita research assistant. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, -, -, Paris, France.
  • ILDEFONSO, Mr Manuel PhD student. Laboratory of Thermodynamics and Energetics of Complex Fluids, Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Avenue de l'Université, BP 576, 64012, Pau, France.
  • Imberty, Dr Anne Senior researcher. CNRS, CERMAV, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble, France.
  • INCARDONA, Dr Marie-Francoise TBS / scisoft, ESRF, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Isnard, Professor Dr Olivier Professor of Physics,. Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP 166, 38042 GRENOBLE cedex.
  • Ivanov, Dr Dimitri Director of research of the CNRS. Institut de Sciences des Materiaux de Mulhouse, CNRS UMR 7361, 15, rue jean Starcky, 68057, Mulhouse, France.
  • JACQUENS, Dr Julien Post-doctoral researcher. Laboratoire des Oxydes et Fluorures (LdOF) - UMR CNRS 6010, Faculté des sciences et techniques de l'Université du Maine, Avenue Olivier Messiaen, F-72085, Le MANS, France.
  • James-Surcouf, Dr Evelyne retired, former senior research advisor. Rhône-Poulenc Rorer Centre de Recherche de Vitry-Alfortville, 13 quai Jules Guesde, BP 14, 94403, Vitry-sur-Seine, France.
  • JANGHORBAN, Dr Amin Postdoctoral. Polytech Savoie, SYMME, 5 chemin de Bellevue, 74940, Annecy-le-Vieux, France.
  • Janin, Professor Joel professor. Universite Paris-Sud, IBBMC Bat. 430, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Janot, Professor Christian retired. Inst. Laue-Langevin, 156X Cedex 9, Grenoble, France.
  • Jardin, Dr Christian retired. Lab. de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon I, 43 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France.
  • Jaud, Dr Joël engineer. CEMES-LOECNRS29 rue Jeanne-MarvigBP 4347, 31055, Toulouse, France.
  • Jeanneau, Dr Erwann Director of Lyon's diffraction centre. Centre de Diffractométrie Henri Longchambon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, 43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, France, 69622, Villeurbanne, France.
  • Jelsch, Dr Christian CNRS director of research. CRM2, CNRS UHP, BP 70239, cedex BP 70239, 54 506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
  • Jentschel, Dr Michael Staff Scientist. Nuclear and Particle Physics Group, Institut Laue-Langevin, 71, avenue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Josse, Dr Michael Assistant Professor - Maître de Conférences. Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux 1, 87 Avenue du Dr. Schweitzer, 33600, Pessac, France.
  • Joubert, Dr Jean-Marc Research Scientist. Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est, CNRS, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320, THIAIS Cedex, France.
  • Joubert, Dr Olivier Professor. Equipe ST2E, Institut des Materiaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), l'Ecole Polytechnique de l'Université de Nantes, 2, rue de la Houssinière, 44322, NANTES, France.
  • Junius, Mr Niels ?. Institut de Biologie Structurale, CEA, 71 avenue des Martyrs, CS 10090, 38044, Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Kalnin, Dr Daniel Johannes Erhard Researcher -Post Doc. -, Paris, France.
  • Kandiah, Dr Eaazhisai Researcher. EMBL Grenoble, EMBL Grenoble, 6, Rue Jules Horowitz, France, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Kappenstein, Professor Charles group leader. Chemistry, URA CNRS 350 Catalyse, Groupe Chimie Minérale, Faculty of Sciences, 40 av. du Recteur Pineau, 86022, Poitiers, France.
  • Karmazin, Dr Lydia Crystallographer. Service de Radiocristallographie, Institut de Chimie de Strasbourg UMR7177, 1 rue Blaise Pascal, 67008, Strasbourg, France.
  • Kauffmann, Dr Brice CNRS scientist. Chemistry, European Institute of Chemistry and Biology, 2 rue Robert Escarpit, 33600, Pessac, France.
  • Kieffer, Dr Jérôme software development. ISDD, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Kieffer, Dr Jerome Software Engineer. Instrumentation, ESRF, 6 rue Jules horowitz, 38000, Grenoble, France.
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  • Kleman, Dr Maurice director of research. Lab. Cristallographie-Minéralogie CNRS, Univ. P. et M. Curie, Tour 16, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Knossow, Dr Marcel director of research. LEBS-CNRS, bât. 34, 1 av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
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  • Konovalov, Dr Oleg Beamline Scientist. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, ESRF, BP 220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Kulda, Dr Jiri instrument group leader. ILL, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Kurakevych, Professor Oleksandr Professor. IMPMC, Physics Department, UPMC Sorbonne University, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Labbé, Professor Philippe retired. Lab. CRISMAT, ISMRA, boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex, France.
  • Labesse, Dr Gilles Associate researcher. Centre de Biochimie Structurale, CNRS, 29 rue de Navacelles, 34090, Montpellier, France.
  • Lacorre, Dr Philippe Directeur de Recherche. Université du Maine, Laboratoire des Fluorures, Avenue Olivier-Messiaen, 72085, Le Mans, France.
  • Lafond, Dr Alain Professeur. Université de Nantes - IMN, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes Cedex 3, FRANCE.
  • Lagarde, Dr Pierre director of research. LURE, Univ. Paris-Sud, bât. 209D, 91405 Orsay, France.
  • lai, Mr xuelei PhD student. ESRF, CS40220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
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  • Lajzerowicz, Professor Janine retired. Lab. de Spectrométrie, Physique (LA 08), Domaine Universite, BP 87, 38042, Saint Martin d'Hères, France.
  • Lambert, Professor Marianne Professeur(retired). Lab. de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris-Sud, bât. 510, F91405, Orsay, France.
  • Lambert, Mr Sébastien PhD Student. ISMRA, CRISMAT, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050, CAEN, France.
  • Lamour, Dr Valerie Assistant Professor. Structural Biology Department, IGBMC, 1 rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404, Illkirch, France.
  • Landa, Dr Georges CNRS researcher. LAAS-CNRS / N2IS, 7, avenue du Colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 France.
  • Lanson, Dr Bruno researcher. LGCA - Maison des Géosciences, Mineralogy & Environments, Domaine Univ., BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
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  • Laulhé, Dr Claire Danièle Post-doc. CRISTAL beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91400, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Launois, Dr Pascale CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, bât. 510, université Paris Sud, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Laval, Dr Jean-Paul research engineer. Lab. de Science des Procédés Céramiques, Traitements de Surface, Fac. des Sciences, 123 av. A. Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex, France.
  • Leake, Mr Steven John Beamline Scientist. Experiments Division, ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38043, Grenoble CEDEX 9 CS-40220, France.
  • Le Bail, Dr Armel Research Director (CNRS). Lab. des Oxydes et Fluorures, CNRS UMR 6010, Universite du Maine, Avenue O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans Cedex 9, France.
  • LE BIDEAU, Dr Jean Assistant Professor. Institut des Matériaux Jean Rouxel (IMN), Université de Nantes - CNRS (UMR 6502), 2 rue de la Houssinière B.P.32229, 44322, Nantes, France.
  • Lecante, Dr Pierre scientist. CEMES - LOE/CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex, France.
  • Le Cointe-Buron, Dr Marylise maitre de conferences. Groupe Matière Condensée et Matériaux, Univ. de Rennes I, bât. 11A campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes, France.
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  • Legros, Professor Jean-Pierre retired. Lab. Chimie de Coordination, CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, Cedex, 31077, Toulouse, France.
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  • Lelievre-Berna, Dr Eddy Advanced Neutron Environment Team Leader. Institut Laue Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Le Meins, Dr Jean-Marc Maître de Conférences. IS2M - LRC CNRS 7228, 15 rue Jean Starky - B.P. 2488, 68057, Mulhouse, France.
  • Leonard, Dr Gordon Andrew Deputy Head Structural Biology Group. ESRF, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • LEONE, Dr PHILIPPE POS\_DOCTORANT. AFM\_UMR6098, CNRS, 163 AVENUE DE LUMINY CASE 932, 13288, MARSEILLE CEDEX9, France.
  • Leone, Dr Philippe researcher. AFMB-UMR7257, CNRS, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009, Marseille, France.
  • Leroy, Dr Frederic Assistant professor. CINaM-CNRS UPR 3118, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13009, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9, France.
  • Leulliot, Professor Nicolas Professor of Biophysics. Laboratoire de Cristallographie et RMN Biologiques, UMR 8015 CNRS, Faculté de Pharmacie, Case 48, 4, Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75270 cedex 06, Paris, France.
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  • LHERMITE, Dr Guillaume Group leader. PrimaDiag, 102 avenue Gaston Roussel, Romainville, 93230, Parc Biocitech, France.
  • Lorber, Dr Bernard Chargé de recherches. UPR 9002, Inst. de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire du CNRS & Plateforme de Biophysique de l'Esplanade ARBRE MOBIEU, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
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  • Mariette, Dr Céline Post-doctoral fellow. Institute of Physics, UMR UR1-CNRS 6251, University of Rennes, Building: 11A - Room: 102, -, Rennes, France.
  • Markovets, Mrs Maria PhD Student. UMR CNRS 7036, Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Résonance Magnétique et Modélisations, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 70239, France, 54506, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.
  • Marquez, Dr Jose Antonio Head of the High Throughput Crystallization Facility. EMBL Grenoble Outstation, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France.
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  • MICHEL, Dr Gurvan CNRS Research Director. Marine Glycobiology Group, UMR 8227 (CNRS-UPMC), Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, CS 90074, 29688 Roscoff CEDEX, Brittany, France.
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  • Monaco, Dr Stephanie Industrial liaison ESRF. ESRF, BP220, F-38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Monceau, Dr Daniel scientist. CIRIMAT, CNRS INPT, ENSIACET, 31077, Toulouse, France.
  • Moras, Dr Dino research director. UMR-IGBMC, Dept. Biologie et Genomique Structurales, 1 rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France.
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  • Moret, Dr Roger Director of research, retired. Laboratoire de physique des solides, University of Paris-Sud, Batiment 510, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Morizet, Dr Yann Lecturer. Planetology and Geodynamic, University of Nantes, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, Loire Atlantique, 44320, Nantes, France.
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  • Mourey, Dr Lionel Senior researcher. Institut de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale (IPBS), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 64182, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 04, France.
  • MUELLER-DIECKMANN, Dr Christoph Scientist. Structural Biology, ESRF, 6 RUE JULES HOROWITZ, France, 38043, Grenoble, France.
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  • Navaza, Professor Alda professor, retired. Sante Medecine et Biologie Humaine (SMBH), Univ. Paris13, 74 rue Marcel Cachin, 93017, Bobigny, France.
  • Navaza, Dr Jorge Directeur de Recherche CNRS, retired. Institut de Biologie Structurale, UMR5075 CEA-CNRS-Univ. J. Fourier, 41, rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Nespolo, Professor Dr Massimo Full Professor. CRM2 UMR-CNRS 7036, Institut Jean Barriol FR 2843, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Université de Lorraine, BP 70239 - Boulevard des Aiguillettes, F54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France.
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  • Nicolis, Dr Ioannis Associate Professor. Faculty of Pharmacy, University Paris Descartes, 4, av. de l'Observatoire, 75006, Paris, France.
  • Nierlich, Dr Martine group leader. CEA/Saclay,DSM/DRECAM/SCM, Bât 125, 91191 Gif-sur Yvette cedex, France.
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  • Obbade, Dr Saïd Professeur des Universités. LEPMI - Phelma Campus, Grenoble INP, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402, Saint Martin d'Hères, France.
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  • Paliwoda, Dr Damian Postdoc. Experiments Division, ESRF, 71, Avenue des Martyrs, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Panine, Dr Pierre Senior scientist. 19, Rue Francois BLUMET, 38360, SASSENAGE, France.
  • Papini, Mrs Cecilia PhD student. Laboratoire de Chimie des Processus Biologiques, Collège de France, 11 place Marcelin Berthelot, 75005, Paris, France.
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  • Pérez, Dr Olivier senior scientist (CNRS). ENSICAEN, CRISMAT, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, Basse Normandie, 14050, Caen, France.
  • Perez, Dr Serge Senior Research Scientist. Department of Molecular Pharmacochemistry, (DPM), Batiment E - Rue de la Chimie, Domaine Universitaire de St Martin d'Hères., BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble, France.
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  • Pernot, Etienne postdoc. ESRF, av. des martyrs, BP 220, 38000 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Perrin, Professor Monique emerite professor. chemistry, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon I, Lab. de cristallographieUMR5078 boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918 Cedex, 69622, Villeurbanne, France.
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  • Pierrot, Dr Marcel retired, former group leader. Lab. de Bioorganique Structurale Centre scientifique, Saint Jérome C12 Cedex 20, 13397, Marseille, France.
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  • Pillet, Dr Sebastien Faculte des sciences, lcm3b, boulevard des aiguillettes, BP 39, 54506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
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  • Pischedda, Dr Vittoria Post-Doc Fellow. (Nano)matériaux pour l'Energie, UMR5306 CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, -, Villeurbanne, 69622, Lyon, France.
  • Podjarny, Dr Alberto group leader. IGBMC, BP 163, 67404 Illkirch Cedex, France.
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  • Popov, Dr Alexander N. scientist. Experimental, ESRF, Polygone Scientifique Louis Néel, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 380000, Grenoble, France.
  • Porcher, Dr Florence Researcher. Laboratoire Leon Brillouin UMR 12 CEA-CNRS, Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, CEN Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
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  • Preeti, Dr Preeti Postdoctrate. UMR5086 CNRS-University of Lyon 1, Institute for the Biology and Chemistry of Proteins, FR3302, 7 passage du Vercors, F-69367 Lyon Cedex 07, France.
  • Prevost, Dr Sylvain Instrument scientist. Large Scale Structures, Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • prezado, Dr yolanda scientist. IMNC, CNRS, 15 Rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406, Orsay, France.
  • Price, Dr David L. Physicist. CNRS-CRMHT, 1D ave. de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071, Orleans cedex 2, France.
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  • Rack, Dr Alexander Research. Structure of Materials, ESRF, CS40220, Isere, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • RAK, Dr Alexey Biochemist. Structural biology/SDI/LGCR, Sanofi-Aventis R&D, 13, Quai Jules Guesde - BP 14, 94403, Vitry sur Seine, France.
  • Rambaud, Dr Joëlle assistant professor, retired. Univ. Montpellier I, LCGM Fac. de Pharmacie 15 av. C. Flahault Cedex 2, 34060, Montpellier, France.
  • Ramos, Dr Aline Y. researcher. CNRS/UGA UPR2940, Institut NEEL, 25 rue des Martyrs BP 166, cedex 9, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Raoux, Dr Denis director of research at CNRS, retired. Lab. de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 avenue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Ravy, Dr Sylvain Researcher. Synchrotron-SOLEIL, L'Orme des merisiers, saint Aubin BP48, 91192, Gif sur Yvette, France.
  • Reiten, Mr Andreas PhD student. Rue 1 Roger Josserand, Apt. 512, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Renaud, Dr Gilles researcher. CEA-Grenoble INAC/SP2M/NRS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Renaud, Dr Jean-Paul Chief Scientific Officer Science & Technology at NovAliX. NovAliX, Bioparc - boulevard Sebastien Brant - BP 30170, 67405, Illkirch, France.
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  • Ressouche, Dr Eric Researcher. DSM/INAC/SPSMS/MDN, 17 av. des Martyrs Cedex 09, 38054, Grenoble, France.
  • Rety, Dr Stephane Researcher. CNRS, UMR 5086, Institut de Biochimie et Chimie des Proteines, 7 Passage du Vercors, Rhone-Alpes, 69 367 cedex 07, Lyon, France.
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  • Reynaud, Miss Marine Final-year Ph.D. Student. Laboratoire de Réactivité et de Chimie du Solide (LRCS), Université de Picardie Jules Verne (UPJV), 33 rue Saint Leu, 80000, Amiens, France.
  • Riche, Dr Claude retired, former director of research. Inst. de Chimie des Substances Naturelles du CNRS, Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
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  • RIES, Dr Madeleine Directeur de Recherche. INSTITUT COCHIN - PROTEOMIQUE 3P5, (U.1016INSERM/UMR8104CNRS/UNIVERSITE PARIS DESCARTES), 22, rue Méchain, 75014 PARIS.
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  • Ritter, Dr Clemens staff scientist. Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex, France.
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  • Rocher, Dr André director of research CNRS, retired. Centre d'Elaboration de Matériaux et d'Etudes Structurales, CNRS, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055, Toulouse, France.
  • Rodríguez-Carvajal, Dr Juan Staff Scientist at the Diffraction Group (ILL). Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, B.P. 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Rodriguez Velamazan, Dr Jose Alberto Neutron Instrument Scientist. ICMA @ Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP156, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Rogalev, Dr Beamline scientist. BP220, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Romier, Dr Christophe IGBMC, 1 rue Laurent Fries - BP 10142, Illkirch, France.
  • Romoli, Mr Filippo Ph.D student. ESRF, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, 38000, Grenoble, France.
  • Roquet, Dr Françoise Jeanne Valentine research engineer. CNRS UMR5236 CPBS, 1919 route de Mende, 34293 Montpellier cedex 5.
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  • Roth, Dr Michel former director of research. Inst. de Biologie Structurale, 41 av. des Martyrs Cedex 01, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • Rousse, Dr Gwenaelle Assistant professor. IMPMC, Universite Paris VI, Boite 77, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Roussel, Dr Alain Researcher. AFMB, CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 932, 13288, Marseille, France.
  • Roussel, Dr Pascal Directeur de recherche CNRS/Head of Solid State Chemistry Depertment. UCCS - Solid State Chemistry Group, CNRS UMR 8181, Av Mendeleiev, 59652, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
  • Royant, Dr Antoine Researcher. Institut de Biologie Structurale, Université Grenoble Alpes - CNRS - CEA, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38044 Cedex 9, Grenoble, France.
  • Rozov, Dr Alexey Post-doctoral researcher. Integrated Structural Biology, IGBMC, 1 rue Laurent Fries / BP 10142, 67404, Illkirch, France.
  • Rüffer, Dr Rudolf physicist. Experiments Division, ESRF, CS 40220, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Ruiz, Dr Francesc Xavier Postdoctoral fellow. Integrated structural Biology, Institute of Genetics and Molecular and Cellular Biology (IGBMC), 1 rue Laurent Fries, 67404, Illkirch, France.
  • Sainctavit, Dr Philippe M. M. H. researcher at CNRS. LMCP, Univ. Paris 6 et 7, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Salem, Miss Michele Maitre de Conference (Bio-Physique). Laboratoire de Cristallographie et RMN Biologiques, UMR 8015, 4 avenue de L'observatoire (Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite Paris5), 75270 Paris cedex 06, Paris, France.
  • SALVA, Dr Thierry R&D project manager. HSA-Technologies, 10 rue de Kembs, 68300, Saint-Louis, France.
  • Samama, Jean-Pierre director of research CNRS. Inst. de Pharmacologie et de Biologie Structurale, 205 route de Narbonne, -, Toulouse, France.
  • SAMUEL, Dr TARDIF Researcher. CEA/DRF/INAC/MEM/NRS, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble, France., Bat. C5, Bureau 674.
  • SANGONO, Mr Armel Magnetism Engineer. GMI, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91190, Saint Aubin, France.
  • Sanloup, Dr Chrystele researcher/teacher. ISTeP, University Paris6, case 110, 75252, Paris, France.
  • Santoni, Dr Gianluca Post-doc. ESRF, 71 av des martyrs, 38000, grenoble, France.
  • Sauter, Dr Claude Research scientist. Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IBMC), Centre National pour la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 15 rue R. Descartes, F-67084, Strasbourg, France.
  • Sauter, Dr Claude Research scientist. Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IBMC), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 15 rue R. Descartes, F-67084, Strasbourg, France.
  • Sauvage-Simkin, Dr Michèle group leader. Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • SCHAMPS, Professor Dr Joel Professor of Physics. UFR de Physique, Universite de Lille1, Batiment P5, 59655, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France.
  • Schaniel, Professor Dr Dominik Professor. Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036), Université de Lorraine, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, BP 70239, 54506, Vandoeuvre les Nancy, France.
  • Schlegel, Dr Michel Researcvh engineer. DPC, CEA saclay, bat391, point courrier 33, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • Schlenker, Professor Michel F. honorary (retired) professor at Grenoble-INP. Prof. M. Schlenker, 22 domaine des Plantées, F-38330 Biviers, France.
  • Schulli, Dr Tobias Urs Scientist in Charge of ID01. Experiments Division, ESRF Grenoble, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Schuster, Dr Isabelle responsible for characterization laboratory. CEA, 17 rue des Martyrs, Polygone Scientifique Louis Néel, SP2M/SGX, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9, France.
  • Schweizer, Dr Jacques retired. MDN/DRFMC17, CEA, av. des Martyrs, Cedex 09, 38054, Grenoble, France.
  • Sciau, Dr Philippe CNRS. Lab. de Chimie Physique du Solide, URA CNRS 453, Ecole Centrale de Paris, 92295 Châtenay-Malabry Cedex 05, France.
  • Seguin, Dr Laurent researcher; teacher. Univ. de Picardie Jules Verne, LRCS, 33 rue Saint Leu, 80039 Amiens Cedex, France.
  • Sen, Mr Gourav Doctoral student. Gourav Sen, B707 Residence Europole, 2/4 Rue Pierre Semard, Grenoble- 38000, France.
  • SHEPARD, Dr William Principle Beamline Scientist. Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192, GIF-sur-YVETTE, France.
  • SHI, Miss Xiaoxuan PHD Student. Laboratoire Structures, Propriétés et Modélisation des Solides, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92290, Chatenay Malabry, France.
  • Simeone, Dr David research in condensed matter. CEA/DEN/DMN, CEA, CEN Saclay Bat 456 p 27b, France, 91191, Gif sur Yvette, France.
  • SIMON, Dr Jean-Paul Beamline scientist at ESRF, retired. SImaP, Grenoble INP-CNRS UMR 5266, BP75, 38401, 38401 St Martin d'hères, France.
  • Sirotti, Dr Fausto Charge de Recherche. L.U.R.E., CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, P.O. 34, 91898, Orsay, France.
  • Slimane, Dr Dahaoui Maître de Conférences. LCM3B, UHP, Faculté des Sciences, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.
  • Snoeck, Dr Etienne researcher. CEMES-CNRS, 29 rue J. Marvig, 31400, Toulouse, France.
  • Solozhenko, Professor Dr Vladimir Directeur de Recherche CNRS. LPMTM-CNRS, Université Paris Nord, 99, avenue J.B. Clement, 93430, Villetaneuse, France.
  • somogyi, Dr andrea group leader. Nanoscopium beamline, Synchrotron Soleil, L'Orme des Merisiers, 91192, Saint-Aubin, France.
  • Sopková, Dr Jana research assistant. UPRES EA-4258, FR CNRS INC3M, Centre d'Études et de Recherche sur le Médicament de Normandie (CERMN), bv becquerel, 14032, Caen, France.
  • Souhassou, Dr Mohamed Scientist. Physics, LCM3B, BP 239, 54506, Vandoeuvre les nancy, France.
  • SPALLA, Dr Olivier Full researcher. DSM/IRAMIS/SIS2M/LIONS, CEA, CEA Saclay, 91191, Gif sur Yvette, France.
  • Spasojevic - de Biré, Professor Dr anne Professor. Laboratoire SPMS UMR 8580 CNRS, Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France.
  • Stirling, Professor William Senior Scientific Adviser. Institut Laue-Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Stuhrmann, Professor Dr Heinrich retired. Heinrich Stuhrmann, 1614, route de Plambois, F-38140 Apprieu, France.
  • Stura, Dr Enrico A. Staff Crystallographer. SIMOPRO / iBiTec-S, Bat. 152, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
  • Suard, Dr Emmanuelle physicist; responsible for instrument (neutron powder diffractometer). ILL, av. des Martyrs, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex, France.
  • SUI-SENG, Dr Christine Sales. Phenomenex, -, -, Paris, France.
  • Sulzenbacher, Dr Gerlind research engineer. Architecture et Fonction des Macromolecules Biologiques, CNRS, Case 932 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13288, Marseille, France.
  • TAILLEUR, Miss Elodie PhD student. Switchable Molecular and Material group, ICMCB, 87 avenue du Dr Albert Schweitzer, 33600, Pessac, France.
  • Tardieu, Dr Annette Former research director, retired. UMR 7590 CNRS - Univ. Paris 6 et 7, LMCP, Case 115, 4 place Jussieu, 75252, Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Tasset, Dr Francis staff scientist. Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex, France.
  • Taulelle, Professor Dr Francis CNRS Research Director, head of Tectospin goup. Institute Lavoisier, University of Versailles St Quanentin en Y. & CNRS, 45 avenue des Etats Unis, 78035, Versailles, France.
  • Tchertanov, Dr Luba researcher. ICSN - CNRS, av. de la Terrasse, bât. 27, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
  • Teillet, Professor Jacques professor. Lab. Magnétisme et Applications, URA CNRS 808, Univ. de Rouen, 76821 Mont-Saint-Aignan Cedex, France.
  • Teixeira, Dr José researcher. Lab. Léon Brillouin, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
  • Terradot, Dr Laurent Group Leader. Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines, CNRS, UMR 5086 BMSSI, 7, passage du Vercors, 69367 cedex, Lyon, France.
  • Texier, Dr Michael Associate Professor. Aix-Marseille University, -, -, Marseille, France.
  • Theobald, Professor Francois retired. 14 impasse Marguerite, 78000, Versailles, France.
  • Théobald-Dietrich, Dr Anne research engineer. UPR 9002- IBMC-CNRS, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
  • Thierry, Mr BERGEY DRX. Laboratory, Safran, Foret de Vernon, 27208, Vernon, France.
  • THOMAS, Dr Philippe CNRS researcher. Faculté des Sciences, SPCTS UMR 6638 CNRS, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060, Limoges, France.
  • Thompson, Mr Andrew William Synchrotron beamline scientist. Experimental group, Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, BP48 St Aubin, F91192, Gif sur Yvette, France.
  • Thozet, Dr Alain Director of Centre de Diffractométrie, retired. Lab. Cristallographie, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon I, 43 bd. du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne, France.
  • Thuery, Dr Pierre research engineer. DSM / IRAMIS / SIS2M, CEA Bat. 125, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
  • TILLARD, Dr Monique researcher. Chemistry, ICGM, Pl E Bataillon, 34095, Montpellier, France.
  • Timmins, Dr Peter Log Term Visitor (retired). ILL, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Tokaychuk, Dr Yaroslav PostDoc. Chimie Métallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Matériaux Paris-Est CNRS UMR 7182, 2-8 rue Henri Dunant, 94320, Thiais, France.
  • Tolentino, Dr Hélio Cesar Nogueira Researcher. ?, ?, ?, France.
  • Toudic, Dr Bertrand co-leader of group. Groupe Matiere Condensée et Materiaux, UMR 6626 CNRS, Bâtiment 11A Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France.
  • Tougard, Dr Pierre researcher, retired. Lab. Modélisation et Ingenierie des Proteines, Univ. Paris-Sud, URA CNRS, 91405, Orsay, France.
  • Tran, Miss Kieu Pharmacist. Chez de Mme ROCHE.
  • TranQui, Professor Duc retired, former director of research. CNRS - Lab. Cristallographie, -, 38032, Grenoble Cedex, France.
  • Trzop, Elzbieta Postdoctoral Associate. Institut de Physique de Rennes, Universite de Rennes 1, 263 av. Général Leclerc, UMR CNRS 6251 Bât. 11 A, 35042, Rennes, France.
  • Tsoucaris, Professor Georges Director of Research. Georges Tsoucaris, Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF - U.M.R. 171 du C.N.R.S., Palais du Louvre, 14 quai François Mitterand, 75001 Paris.
  • Urzhumtsev, Dr Alexandre G. professor. Faculty of Sciences, University Nancy 1, France, 54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy, France.
  • van der Lee, Dr Arie X-ray scientist. A. van der Lee, Institut Européen des Membranes (UMR 5635), Université de Montpellier II - cc 047, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, FRANCE.
  • Vaney, Dr Marie-Christine researcher. Lab d'Enzymologie et Biochimie Structurales, UPR 9063 CNRS, bât. 34, av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France.
  • VANNIER, Professor Rose-Noelle Laboratoire de Cristallochimie et Physico-chimie du Solide. R.N. Vannier, LCPS-ENSCL, BP 108, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.
  • van Tilbeurgh, Professor Herman professor, U. Paris XI. laboratoire d'enzymologie et de biologie structurale, CNRS- Bat 34, 1 avenue de la terrasse, 91190, gif s/Yvette, France.
  • VARROT, Dr Annabelle Researcher. CERMAV-CNRS, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble cedex 9, France.
  • Vasconcelos, Mr Filipe researcher. LSDRM, DSM/IRAMIS/NIMBE, --, -, -, -, France.
  • Vendier, Dr Laure Research Engineer. Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination, CNRS, 205 Route de Narbonne, 31077, Toulouse, France.
  • Vera, Miss Laura Technician. CEA/Saclay, DSV/iBiTec's/SIMOPRO Bât.152 - PC24, 91191 cedex, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France.
  • Verger-Gaugry, Dr Jean-Louis scientist. Geometry / LIMD, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, Campus Scientifique, 73376, Le Bourget du Lac, France.
  • Vettier, Dr Christian group leader, retired. Previous addresses:, ESRF, BP 220 Cedex, 38043, Grenoble, France.
  • Veysseyre, Dr Renée ?. Lab. de Chimie Physique du Solide, Ecole Centrale de CNRS, UA 453, 453, Paris, France.
  • Vicat, Professor Jean professor, retired. Institut de Biologie Structurale, 41 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • Vidal, Dr Jean-Pierre group leader. Lab. Analyse Multipolaire des Répartitions de Charge Experimentales, Univ. Montpellier II, Case courrier 26, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.
  • Vidal-Valat, Professor Genevieve professor. Lab. d'Analyse Multipolaire des Répartitions de Charge Experimentales, Univ. Montpellier II, Case courrier 26, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 05, France.
  • Villain, Dr Olivier post-doc position. Olivier Villain, IRAMIS / SIS2M / LSDRM, UMR CEA/CNRS 3299 - SIS2M, CEA Saclay SIS2M - Bât 125, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, FRANCE.
  • Villeret, Dr Vincent Research Director. Laboratoire de Cristallographie Macromoléculaire, UMR8161 CNRS, Institut de Biologie de Lille - Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 rue du Professeur Calmette, 59021, Lille, France.
  • Vincent, Professor Henri retired, former group leader. Lab. de Matériaux et du Génie Physique, ENS de Physique de URA CNRS, 1109, Grenoble, France.
  • Volbeda, Dr Anne scientist. Dr. Anne Volbeda, Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Cristallogénèse des Protéines, INSTITUT DE BIOLOGIE STRUCTURALE, UMR5075 CEA-CNRS-UJF, 41 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • Weber, Professor Hans-Peter Director. ACCE Research, ACCE R+M, Grand Vivier, Isere, 38960, St Aupre, France.
  • Weik, Dr Martin Biophysicist. Laboratoire de Biophysique Moléculaire, Institut de Biologie Structurale, 41, rue Jules Horowitz, 38027, Grenoble, France.
  • WEILL, Dr Francois researcher. Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensée de Bordeaux, CNRS, 87 Avenue du Dr Albert Schweitzer, 33608, Pessac Cedex, France.
  • Weissenhorn, Professor Winfried Director. UVHCI c/o CIBB, Grenoble University, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Wenger, Dr Emmanuel XRD facility Engineer. CRM2 Laboratory, Faculté des Sciences et Technologies, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, Lorraine, 54506, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy, France.
  • Westhof, Professor Eric professor. Inst. de Biol. Moléculaire et Cellulaire, UPR 9002 du CNRS, 15 rue René Descartes, 67084 Strasbourg Cedex, France.
  • Whüler, Dr Annick retired. Lab. de Minéralogie-Cristallographie, UA009 CNRS, Univ. P. et M. Curie et Paris VII, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France.
  • Willaime, Professor Christian group leader, retired. Lab. Minéralogie PhysiqueGéosciences, Univ. Rennes I, -, 35042, Rennes, France.
  • Wright, Dr Jonathan European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP-220, Grenoble, France.
  • Yee, Miss Ai Woon PhD student. Life Sciences Group, Institut Laue-Langevin, 71, avenue des Martyrs, 38042, Grenoble, France.
  • Yekwa, Dr Elsie Laban Researcher. 163 Avenu de Lunmiy, AFMB POLYTECH CASE 925, 13009, Marseille, France.
  • Zaccai, Dr Joseph director of research. Institut de Biologie Structurale, 41 av. des Martyrs, 38027 Grenoble Cedex 1, France.
  • zambolin, Miss silvia phd student. Paris, IBPC, Institut de biologie physico chimique, 13, rue pierre et marie curie, France, 75005, Paris, France.
  • Zelwer, Dr Charles Directeur de Recherche au C.N.R.S., retired. Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, rue Charles Sadron, Région Centre, 45071, ORLEANS, France.
  • Zeyen, Dr Claude Mathias Emile physicist, head of development branch, emeritus. Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09, France.
  • Zeyer, Dr Denis Head of structural biology. Structural biology, NovAliX, bvd Sebastien Brant, 67400, Illkirch, France.
  • Zhang, Miss Shuheng Ph.D student. ssp, CINaM-CNRS, CINaM-CNRS Campus de Luminy, 13288, Marseille Cedex 9, France.
  • Zheng, Dr Jacques Yunlin CNRS researcher. Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UPMC, Case 840, 4 place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France.

France

This is a list of forthcoming meetings in France that are recorded in the IUCr Calendar of Events. Please let us know of any that are missing by completing this form or sending an email to forthcoming.meetings@iucr.org.

HERCULES 2018 - European School 28 Years of Neutron & Synchrotron Radiation Science France 25th Feb 2018 - 30th Mar 2018
3rd Annual Users Meeting of iNEXT France 19th Mar 2018 - 21st Mar 2018
iNEXT Workshop. Translating Structural Biology into Biomedical Applications France 21st Mar 2018 - 23rd Mar 2018
EMBO Practical Course on Characterization of macromolecular complexes by integrative structural biology France 12th May 2018 - 19th May 2018
Les Houches/TSRC Workshop on Protein Dynamics France 27th May 2018 - 1st Jun 2018
Fatigue 2018 France 27th May 2018 - 1st Jun 2018
2018 E-MRS Spring Meeting and Exhibit France 18th Jun 2018 - 22nd Jun 2018
The 14th European Summer School on Scattering Methods Applied to Soft Condensed Matter France 18th Jun 2018 - 26th Jun 2018
Combined Analysis in XRD by using MAUD software: 9th Workshop France 2nd Jul 2018 - 6th Jul 2018
Congrès général de l’Association Française de Crystallographie France 10th Jul 2018 - 13th Jul 2018

Reports of past activities in France

All events

This is a concise listing of all events in this country that are associated with the International Year of Crystallography 2014 and its follow-up initiatives.

15th Mar 2013 La biocristallographie : un outil incontournable pour de nouveaux médicaments BU des Sciences, Place centrale Campus de Grenoble
27th Mar 2013 The ribosome at high resolution: a conference by Ada Yonath Saint Martin d'Hθres
28th Mar 2013 "Espérance de vie: rêves et réalités". Une conférence grand public d'Ada Yonath, "Is there a limit to life expectancy? Wishes, predictions and reality Grenoble
7th Oct 2013 Festival La Novela Toulouse
13th Nov 2013 De la découverte de la diffraction des rayons X par les cristaux Nantes
28th Nov 2013 Bragg Symposium "Crystallography for life" Grenoble
17th Jan 2014 Festival de la cristallographie Paris
20th Jan 2014 IYCr2014 Opening Ceremony UNESCO Main Building, Paris
22nd Jan 2014 Lectures "la cristallographie, une clef de la connaissance" UNESCO, Paris
23rd Jan 2014 Satellite session SOLEIL-LLB of the 9th SOLEIL Users' Meeting Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau
18th Mar 2014 Inauguration of the international year of crystallography in Marseille Marseille
17th May 2014 "Des cristaux aux bijoux" ("From crystals to jewellery") Le Visiatome - Marcoule
26th May 2014 E-MRS 2014 Spring Meeting Lille
6th Jul 2014 Exhibition "Gemmes, une brillante histoire" ("Gems, a bright story") Musée de Saint-Antoine-l’Abbaye
10th Sep 2014 STOE DECTRIS Xenocs OpenFactory Grenoble and Darmstadt
2nd Oct 2014 La Cristallographie et Nous Alsace
11th Oct 2014 Cristallographie, Fleuriau de Bellevue et la géométrie des minéraux La Rochelle
14th Nov 2014 Exhibition "Des cristaux et des Hommes" ("Crystals and Men") Gradignan
15th Nov 2014 Les cristaux de demain dans notre quotidien Nancy
La cristallographie, science et techniques Vol. 44-45 (2015) of Reflets de la physique, the newsletter of the Société Française de Physique (SFP) is entirely dedicated to crystallography and IYCr2014
France: Concours National de croissance cristalline Nationwide A French national crystal growth competition for high-school students is planned for 2014 on the occasion of the International Year of Crystallography.

This extract from 50 Years of X-ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald and published in 1962, recounts the early development of crystallography in this region.

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CHAPTER 19

The New Crystallography in France

by J. Wyart

19.1. THE PERIOD BEFORE AUGUST 1914

At the time of Laue's discovery, research in crystallography was carried on in France principally in two laboratories, those of Georges Friedel and of Frédéric Wallerant, at the School of Mines in St. Étienne and at the Sorbonne in Paris, respectively. Jacques Curie, it is true, also investigated crystals in his laboratory and, together with his brother Pierre, discovered piezoelectricity which soon found extensive application in the measurement of radioactivity; but he had few students and formed no school. Among the research of Georges Friedel that on twinning is universally known and accepted, as are his studies of face development in relation to the lattice underlying the crystal structure. Frédéric Wallerant's best known work was on polymorphism and on crystalline texture. In 1912 both Friedel and Wallerant were deeply interested in the study of liquid crystals, a form of aggregation of matter only recently discovered by the physicist in Karlsruhe, O. Lehmann. Friedel's co-worker was François Grandjean, Wallerant's Charles Mauguin. Laue, Friedrich and Knipping's publication immediately drew their attention, and Laue's remark that the diagrams did not disclose the hemihedral symmetry of zincblende prompted Georges Friedel to clarify, 2 June 1913, the connection between the symmetries of the crystal and the diffraction pattern. If the passage of X-rays, like that of light, implies a centre of symmetry, i.e. if nothing distinguishes propagation in a direction AB from that along BA, then X-ray diffraction cannot reveal the lack of centrosymmetry in a crystal, and a right-hand quartz produces the same pattern as a left-hand one. This remark is well-known among crystallographers as Friedel's Law, and its more thorough proof has given rise to a fair number of theoretical papers throughout the years. Though usually true, Friedel's Law does not hold generally, even for non-absorbing crystals. But this does not impair the usefulness of the 11 classes of 'Laue symmetry' which Friedel enumerated.

Neither Friedel nor Wallerant had equipment for working with X-rays at their disposal. So it came about that in the hectic 1913/14 pre-war period Maurice de Broglie was the first in France to obtain X-ray diffraction. He was working in the laboratory of Paul Langevin at the Collège de France on the ionization of gases, so that he was well acquainted with the required technique. In his first communication to the Academy of Sciences (31 March 1913) de Broglie reports on results he obtained by the Laue-Friedrich-Knipping method with cubic crystals (ZnS, CaF2, NaCl, magnetite). He studied the influence of temperature by cooling the crystals to liquid nitrogen temperature, and of magnetic fields (up to 104 gauss) in the case of magnetite. He finds that cooling neither increases the number of diffracted spots, nor sharpens them; that the magnetic field at right angles to the primary beam (which has the direction of a ternary symmetry axis) does not destroy the crystal symmetry; and incidentally, that the secondary rays which produce the diffracted spots, are not deflected by the magnetic field, as they would be were they electron beams.

In the following three months de Broglie continued using the Laue method and photographic recording; striations appearing in the diffracted spots were at that time under discussion both by de Broglie and others (Barkla, Hupka), because it was not clear whether they were to be explained as further diffraction fringes or as produced by irregular growth of the crystal.

De Broglie's first fundamental contribution came in his two notes of November and December 1913 introducing the rotating crystal method; this soon became one of the most useful methods for X-ray spectroscopy as well as crystal structure analysis. The first note announces a provisional camera in which the crystal was mounted on the drum of a recording barometer which gave it a rotation of 2° per hour. Evidently the clockwork was not running smoothly enough, for a number of lines appeared which had not been registered by W. H. Bragg or Moseley and Darwin. A double film technique was used for distinguishing by absorption between coincident first and higher order lines. In the second note successful double-sided registrations of the platinum and tungsten spectra are recorded, obtained on a variety of crystals. On rocksalt complete spectra were registered inside 15 minutes. An interesting remark in this paper is that the effect of temperature on the diffracted intensity depends on the order and not on the angle of diffraction.

This first paper on X-ray spectra by de Broglie opened up a long series of spectroscopic papers. Together with F. A. Lindemann, the later Lord Cherwell, he introduced the method of secondary excitation of the emission spectra of substances from which targets inside the X-ray tube could not be formed, by irradiating them with harder X-rays. He could hereby complete the systematic exploration of X-ray spectra throughout the periodic system, except for the elements of order below 30. On this occasion the absorption edges of the silver and bromine in the photographic emulsion were also observed for the first time (May 1914). Whereas the atomic weight of Te is smaller than that of I, the X-ray spectra show that Te has the higher atomic number.

Among the other papers by M. de Broglie focussing devices by reflection on bent mica flakes and diffraction obtained with thin metallic sheets, a precursor of the powder method, should be mentioned. This most fertile activity came to an abrupt end with the outbreak of war in August 1914 which put a stop to all research in this field in France for five long years.

19.2. THE PERIOD 1918-1950

M. de Broglie's Laboratory

When scientists went back to the laboratories after the end of the First World War, Maurice de Broglie was the first to organize X-ray research. He did this by transforming his private mansion in central Paris, not far from the Étoile, into a makeshift laboratory where he, together with a brilliant group of young collaborators ran their X-ray tubes in rooms still panelled with oak or hung with gobelins. The main line of de Broglie's own work remained X-ray spectroscopy which at that time was one of the chief sources of evidence for the correctness of the rapidly developing ideas of atomic structure.

Alexandre Dauvillier was M. de Broglie's first helper in establishing the new laboratory. During the war he had been in the army medical corps operating a motorized radiological field unit. He stayed with de Broglie for twelve years, from 1919 onward, and extended the technique and knowledge of X-ray spectra to the long-wave region where tube, grating, and plate had to be kept in the same vacuum in order to eliminate unwanted absorption. A. H. Compton wrote of his work in the J. Optical Society of America 1928: 'Dauvillier was making rapid strides, working from the soft X-ray side of the gap (between light and X-rays). First, using a grating of palmitic acid, he found the Kα-line of carbon of wave-length 45 Å. Then, using for a grating a crystal of the lead salt of melissic acid, with the remarkable grating spacing of 87.5 Å, he measured a spectral line of thorium as long as 121 Å, leaving only a small fraction of the interval to the shortest ultraviolet lines. The credit for filling-in the greater part of the original gap must thus be given to Dauvillier.'

Soon after Dauvillier, Jean Thibaud, Jean-Jacques Trillat and Louis Leprince-Ringuet joined de Broglie.

As far as his X-ray work is concerned, Jean Thibaud is mainly known for his measurement of X-ray wave-lengths by means of a ruled grating in 1927, a method which originated with A. H. Compton and R. L. Doan in 1925. From his measurements Thibaud expressed X-ray wave-lengths directly in terms of the standard meter and thereby related Siegbahn's X-unit, which was based on crystal diffraction, to the Ångström unit which is 10-10 of a meter. This work, and subsequent measurements of even greater precision, led to the revision of one of the most fundamental constants in physics and chemistry, Avogadro's number.

In the first period of the eight years that J. J. Trillat worked in de Broglie's laboratory, he investigated long-chain organic compounds by means of X-ray diffraction. These studies, which paralleled those of A. Müller of the Royal Institution in London, were of twofold interest: paraffins and fatty acids were among the very limited group of organic compounds for which the full structure could be determined with the means of discussion then available; besides, they were suitable crystals for the spectroscopy of very soft X-rays. Trillat studied their orientation on glass or metallic supports and invented the 'method of the tangent drop'. In this method a drop of the melt is allowed to solidify in air, whereby the surface layers form a structure of equidistant curved sheets which reflect locally according to Bragg's law. The diagram obtained from a tangentially incident X-ray can be compared to a wide-angle diagram with ordinary crystals and gave Trillat and his co-worker Dupré La Tour information about the structure of the surface layer.

When in 1927 Davisson and Germer in U.S.A., G. P. Thomson in England, and little later Maurice Ponte in France confirmed Louis de Broglie's idea of the wave nature of electrons by diffraction experiments it was natural that Trillat, being in close contact with the latter, should take up electron diffraction. He became the inventor of many ingenious methods and applied the new technique to the study of the oxidation of metals and alloys, the cementation of iron and the kinetics of other chemical reactions, especially of the surface type.

Jean Perrin's Laboratory

Jean Perrin, Nobel laureate and professor of physical chemistry at the Sorbonne, was one of the most spirited and stimulating teachers of Science in France. His 'Laboratory of Physical Chemistry' might well have been named better so as to indicate its main field of research more precisely, namely the structure of matter. Typical of the fundamental simplicity of Perrin's work are his determination of Avogadro's number from the microscopic observation of the density gradient of emulsified droplets, and his observations of the colours of patches of uniform thickness in films of fatty acid soaps from which he deduced the lengths of the soap molecules before the days of their X-ray determination. Similar observations of the uniformly coloured patches on thin mica flakes between crossed nicols led his co-worker René Marcellin (killed in September 1914) to a correct value of the cell length of the mica structure.

X-ray spectroscopic work began in this laboratory when Miss Yvette Cauchois constructed, in 1931, the first of a series of spectrographs using a bent crystal for intensifying weak spectral lines and increasing the resolving power by focussing the rays diffracted by the crystal. From that date onwards there was a steady flow of X-spectroscopic results, often under the common authorship of her and H. Hulubei (later professor of physics and rector of the University in Bucharest, Rumania), which made this laboratory rank in this field second only to M. Siegbahn's laboratory in Stockholm.

Her own work, and that of her pupils Manescu, Despujols, Barrère and others, covers the details of emission and absorption spectra of the K and L series of a very large number of elements, including some, like krypton and neon, in the gaseous state. Working with a wide source, obtained by secondary excitation of the samples outside the X-ray tube, she overcame the difficulties of low intensity and high absorption. The results, collected in 1947 in a book by Cauchois and Hulubei, are about to be published in a revised and enlarged second edition. The details of both emission and absorption spectra contain a great deal of information about the electronic states of the atoms in the crystal medium, but to find a simple interpretation for them is still a major problem of solid state physics. Professor Cauchois' work included ultra-soft X-rays and γ-rays besides the more usual X-ray range.

Georges Friedel's Laboratory

When the University of Strasbourg became French at the end of the First World War, Georges Friedel was appointed in 1919 to the chair of mineralogy. Being particularly interested in clarifying the nature of liquid crystals, he asked his son, Edmond Friedel, to investigate the hypothetical stratified structure of the smectic phases with X-rays. Since there was no suitable X-ray equipment in Strasbourg, Edmond Friedel performed his experiments in the laboratory of Maurice de Broglie. He confirmed the stratified structure and followed ethyl azoxybenzoate and ethyl azoxycinnamate through the temperature range from crystalline to mesomorphous to liquid state. In the temperature interval of smectic ethyl para-azoxy-benzoate he was able to measure the sheet thickness of 19.9 Å. He also found for sodium oleate a sheet thickness of 43.5 Å, thus refining the value which Perrin and Wells had obtained by their optical methods.

When X-ray equipment became available in Strasbourg, Louis Royer was in a position to check some of the basic data on which his theory of the mutual orientation of different kinds of crystals is based, a phenomenon he called 'epitaxis'. Raymond Hocart similarly used the equipment for the study of the twinning which is a standard feature in some minerals, such as boleite, pseudoboleite, cumengite, boracite; he and his group of students also investigated epitaxis.

The Laboratoire de Minéralogie et Cristallographie in Paris and its Spread

In 1919 Frédéric Wallerant succeeded to get Charles Mauguin appointed as Associate Professor and helped him to set up his X-ray equipment. Mauguin became the first in France to be interested in the analysis of individual crystal structures rather than in general physical problems associated with the crystalline state. After a first checking of the known quartz and calcite structures (1921 and 1925), Mauguin determined independently the structure of graphite (1925) (A. W. Hull in 1917 had found it already, and in 1924 other independent determinations by Hassel and Mark, and by J. D. Bernal appeared). He found unknown structure types in investigating cinnabar (1923) and calomel (1925). After that he devoted several years of study to the various kinds of micas, without, however, solving their structures. In his teaching, Mauguin developed a simplified presentation of space-group theory, including a symbolism which was later combined with that of Carl Hermann to form the Hermann-Mauguin notation now universally used. As early as 1924 his book La structure des cristaux appeared which presented an introduction and survey of the methods and results of X-ray diffraction backed by Mauguin's own experience.

Around Mauguin grew a school of crystallographers of the new type. Jean Wyart, Stanislas Goldsztaub, Jean Laval, and Pierre Chatelain were the first of these.

Jean Wyart, in 1926, determined the structure of a basic zinc acetate which he had synthetized. Later (1929) he studied several zeolites and more particularly 'chabazite', working out the position of atoms and following with X-rays the changes of their positions when the percentage of zeolitic water varies, or water is replaced by mercury or ammonia, or when the nature of the alkaline or alkaline-earth ions is changed by diffusion. He worked out the atomic structures of paratoluidine and leucite and studied several cases of polymorphism. When Charles Mauguin succeeded in 1933 to Frédéric Wallerant, Jean Wyart became his Associate Professor. With his students, he used X-rays chiefly for determining the atomic structure of minerals, and as a mean of identification of finely crystallized products formed during the hydrothermal synthesis of silicates. He remained permanently with Charles Mauguin, and succeeded him in 1948, when Mauguin retired.

St. Goldsztaub, while he was working with Mauguin, studied the iron oxides and determined the atomic structure of lepidocrocite. After the Second World War, he took over the former laboratory of Georges Friedel at the University of Strasbourg, and became engaged mainly in electronic optics and crystal growth.

Jean Laval investigated the diffuse scattering of X-rays. Using monochromatic radiation, he measured accurately with an ionization spectrometer the intensities of the incident and the scattered beams. He showed that diffuse scattering was essentially a temperature effect, and he established experimentally the laws for different crystals, in particular for sylvine. As these results were not in good agreement with the theories of Debye, Waller and Born, he worked out a quantitative theory which is generally adopted nowadays and which is based on Born's work on harmonic vibrations in solids. The diffuse scattering of X-rays is interpreted as selective reflection from the elastic wave-planes. From this theory and his X-rays measurements, he was able to obtain the coefficients of elasticity and the speeds of the acoustic waves in crystals such as sylvine. These remarkable results have since been widely confirmed, in France first by Philippe Olmer for aluminium; for iron Hubert Curien was able to determine only from X-ray data the atomic oscillation spectrum in iron crystals, the binding forces between an atom and 26 of its neighbours, and the specific heat curve.

Further confirmations of Laval's theory were found by D. Cribier regarding fluorine and P. Mériel regarding sodium chloride. Theoretical and experimental research of Laval and his students on the Compton effect in crystals should also be mentioned.

Since 1950 Laval occupies the chair of Theoretical Physics at the Collège de France and his research, mainly on the fundamentals of crystal elasticity, has moved there.

Pierre Chatelain, while working at the laboratory of Mauguin, took up once more the optical study of liquid crystals. To begin with, he rarely used X-rays, but during recent years in his laboratory at Montpellier, he and his co-worker J. Falgueirettes obtained important results on the structure of these substances by means of X-ray diffraction.

A large number of scientists have since studied at the Laboratory of Mineralogy and Crystallography at the Sorbonne, amongst the earliest and the best known, are C. Kurylenko, known for his studies on X-ray absorption; J. Rose for improvements of the X-ray spectrometer and methods of determining crystal structure; J. Barraud for his research on X-ray optics; Robert Gay and his group for his determinations of the atomic structures of organic compounds; M. M. Herpin, Rimsky, for their determination of crystal structures. André Guinier, though he never worked in this laboratory, is also one of Charles Mauguin's students. His thesis on the small-angle scattering methods made him known in the world of crystallographers, and the curved monochromator which he introduced, and his focussing powder cameras are used in every laboratory. These methods allowed him to study small-angle scattering in much greater detail and he clearly recognized what a powerful tool this was for the study of the first stage of a transformation of an alloy; the slight disturbance of the initial lattice does not change appreciably the diffraction pattern, but has a striking effect on diffuse scattering. He has studied binary alloys like Al-Cu, Al-Zn, Cu-Be, in which the scattering power of the two atoms is widely different and which are obtainable as single crystals. In these alloys he could prove the segregation of solute atoms. Among his early students, Fournet has applied the small-angle scattering to hemoglobin and given a theory of X-ray scattering in an order-disorder assemblage and in liquids; Devaux and Brusset have studied the hole size in various charcoals. Castaing is very well known for the perfecting of his 'Sonde' which permits him to determine, by the X-ray emission spectrum, the chemical composition of microscopic inclusions of the order of one micron. Guinier's work was done at the laboratory of the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers from 1940 to 1960. It has now moved to the new research centre of the Faculty of Science of Paris University at Orsay (S. & O.).

Urbain's Laboratory and its Spread

The first chemical laboratory in France to obtain X-ray equipment was the laboratory of Georges Urbain at the Sorbonne. Here Delaunay obtained his X-ray tube at the same time as Charles Mauguin, and he soon had as assistant, later as successor, Marcel Mathieu. The latter had already worked in 1925 and 1926 at the Royal Institution of London, in Sir William Bragg's laboratory. He applied X-ray analytical methods to several chemical problems, to what he called the topochemical reactions, such as the gelatinization of nitro-cellulose. He studied solid catalysts and found that catalytic activity is related to the existence of holes in the solid phase. In some cases he was able to estimate the shape and size of these holes. His laboratory rapidly became very active and was attended by numerous scientists, a number of which have become renowned crystallographers. One of the first of these was Jacques Mering whose work deals with X-ray scattering by highly imperfect crystals, such as charcoal and clay. For several years the lamented Miss Rosalind Franklin worked with him.

E. Grison specialized in the determination of atomic structures and V. Luzzati was initiated by him to X-ray techniques. After several years spent in Mathieu's laboratory, the latter, well known for his researches on the phase problem and for his determinations of the atomic structures of nitric acids, organized an X-ray laboratory for biology at Strasbourg.

With Georges Urbain, G. Champetier also used X-rays to study the properties of macromolecules, for instance the mechanism of the nitration of cotton by nitric acid vapour.

Among the first students of Mathieu was Miss Cécile Stora. She remained in charge of his laboratory when he left the Sorbonne with his whole group to get installed in larger laboratories, first at the Institut de Recherches Appliquées, and later at the Office National d'Études et de Recherches Aeronautiques. The structures which Miss Stora studied by means of X-rays are those of organic dyes, derivatives of triphenylmethane and of Indigo (Mrs. von Eller-Pandraud). G. von Eller, besides for publishing interesting memoirs on the phase problem, is well known for his much used photosummation machine for Fourier synthesis, which was first constructed in Stora's Sorbonne laboratory.

Other Laboratories

Another chemical laboratory using X-rays is that of Professor Chaudron in Vitry. He and his first students Benard, Faivre, Lacombe, Michel, nowadays directors of important laboratories, have perfected the methods of precise lattice parameter measurement in particular by the back-reflection method, Much of their work deals with very pure metals, alloys, and the mechanisms of oxidation and of corrosion as linked to crystal defects.

During the Second World War, Mathieu's associate Mering, having taken refuge at the University of Grenoble, set up there an X-ray laboratory and was joined by F. Bertaut. The latter remained in charge of this active laboratory after the end of the war, when Mering returned to Paris. Bertaut and his coworkers have determined the structures of mineral compounds, more particularly of iron and rare earth garnets. Bertaut also published important memoirs of a theoretical character on the direct determination of atomic structures from X-ray data alone.

Needless to say, X-ray diffraction methods have penetrated, slowly but irresistibly, into many more governmental and industrial laboratories in France. Among the first, mention should be made of Mrs. Adrienne Weill's X-ray section of the Navy Research Laboratory, of the National Telecommunications Laboratory, and the National Nuclear Research Laboratories. Important industrial X-ray laboratories are to be found in the steel and mining industries, the tire manufacture and in photographic works. There is room for expansion here, and it may be hoped that as more students are now getting a training in crystallographic methods, so will the use industry makes of X-ray diffraction continue to rise.


First published for the International Union of Crystallography 1962 by N.V.A. Oosthoek's Uitgeversmaatschappij, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Digitised 1999 for the IUCr XVIII Congress, Glasgow, Scotland
© 1962, 1999 International Union of Crystallography

Photographic record of crystallographic activities in France

The complete IUCr photographic archive includes thousands of photographs. Here we include a collection illustrating activities in this country. This image is selected randomly from the galleries listed below (IUCr Congress and General Assembly, 1990).
Lynne Howell, ?.