Crystallography around the world: Italy

National associations or societies

 Associazione Italiana Cristallografia
 Società Italiana Luce di Sincrotrone | Italian Synchrotron Radiation Society

Italy

Category III

Adhering Body

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche

Secretary of National Committee

M. SAVIANO, Istituto di Cristallografia del CNR, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari, Italy

National Committee

R. OBERTI (Chair)
G. ARTIOLI
F. BOSCHERINI
A. ILARI
C. MEALLI
M.SAVIANO
G. ZANOTTI
A. ZAPPETTINI
M. ZEMA

This information last updated: 01 Feb 2016

The following crystallographers in Italy are registered in the World Directory of Crystallographers.

(IUCr) crystallographers in Italy

513 entries found

  • Ajò, Dr David Research leader, retired. ICIS, CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, PD, I-35127, Padova, Italy.
  • Albano, Professor Vincenzo Giulio Full professor. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Alberico, Dr Augusta Vittoria Post doctoral fellowship. Former address: Universita' di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso, 35, TO, 10135, Torino, Italy.
  • Alberti, Professor Alberto Full professor. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di Mineralogia, Università di Ferrara, Corso Ercole I D'Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Albinati, Professor Alberto Full professor. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Milano, Via C. Golgi, 19, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Albisetti, Mr Alessandro Figini researcher. Edison SpA, Via castelnuovo, 22100, Como, Italy.
  • Allegra, Professor Giuseppe Full professor. Dip. di ChimicaPolitecnico di Milanovia Mancinelli 7, I-20131, Milano, Italy.
  • Alterio, Dr Vincenzo Researcher. Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, C.N.R., Via Mezzocannone, 16, Italy, I-80134, Naples, Italy.
  • Altomare, Dr Angela Senior Researcher. Institute of Crystallography - CNR, via Amendola 122/o, I-70125 Bari, Italy.
  • Amidani, Ms Lucia Postdoctoral fellow. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, 40127, Bologna, Italy.
  • Angel, Ross Crystallographer. ., 35134, Padova, Italy.
  • Angjellari, Dr Mariglen Researcher. Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, Roma, 00133, Roma, Italy.
  • Aquilano, Professor Dino Professor of Crystallography. Dip. Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, University, via Valperga Caluso 35, 10143, Torino, Italy.
  • Aquilanti, Dr Giuliana Head of XAFS beamline. Beamlines Spectroscopy/Scattering, Elettra - Sincrotrone TRieste, Strada Statale 14 - km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, Trieste, 34149, Basovizza, Italy.
  • Arfelli, Professor Dr Fulvia Professor - Physics Department. Dep. of Physics, University of Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34100, Trieste, Italy.
  • Arletti, Dr Rossella researcher. Earth Science, University of Torino, Via Valperga Caluso,35, -, 10123, TORINO, Italy.
  • Artioli, Professor Gilberto Full professor. Dip. Geoscienze, Università di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Auriemma, Professor Dr Finizia Associate Professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Monte S.Angelo - Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.
  • Bacchi, Professor Dr Alessia Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Viale GP Usberti 17A, I-43124 Parma, Italy.
  • Bachechi, Dr Fiorella Senior researcher, retired. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica, -, I-00016, Roma, Italy.
  • Baldrighi, Dr Michele Postdoctoral fellow. Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via L. Mancinelli 7, 20133, Milan, Italy.
  • Ballirano, Dr Paolo Researcher. Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185, Roma, Italy.
  • Balzarotti, Professor Adalberto Full professor. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, I-00133 Roma, Italy.
  • Bandoli, Professor Giuliano Full professor. Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Padova, Via F. Marzolo, 5, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Barba, Dr Luisa Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia del CNR, c/o Area Science Park SS 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Basovizza TS, Italy.
  • Barbieri, Professor Renato Full professor, retired. Università di Palermo, Dip. di Chimica Inorganica Via Archirafi, I-90123, Palermo, Italy.
  • Baricco, Professor Marcello Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica-Fisica e Chimica, dei Materiali, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Bartolucci, Dr Cecilia Researcher. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica "G.Giacomello", Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, C.P. no. 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Roma), Italy.
  • Basso, Professor Riccardo Full professor. Dip. per lo Studio del Territorio e sue Risorse, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, I-16132 Genova, Italy.
  • Battezzati, Professor Livio Full Professor. Dip. di Chimica IFM, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Belicchi, Professor Marisa Professor. Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, University of Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Bellon, Professor Pier Luigi Professor emeritus. Dip. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Belluso, Dr Elena Researcher. Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Benedetti, Professor Alvise Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Fisica, Università di Venezia, Calle Larga S. Marta 2137, 30123 Venezia and Via Torino 155/b 30170 Mestre-Venezia, Italy.
  • Benedetti, Professor Ettore Full professor. Dip. Chimica Biologica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone 6/8, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
  • Benini, Dr Stefano assistant professor of Organic Chemistry. Bioorganic Chemistry and Bio-Crystallography laboratory (B2Cl), Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano, Piazza Università 5, 39100, Bolzano, Italy.
  • Benna, Dr Piera Researcher. Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Bergese, Dr Paolo Researcher. Laboratorio di Strutturistica Chimica, Dip. di Ingegneria meccanica, Università di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia, Italy.
  • Berti, Dr Donatella researcher. Enitecnologie S.p.A., via F. Maritano 26, I-20097 San Donato Milanese (Milano), Italy.
  • Berti, Dr Giovanni Researcher. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Bertolasi, Professor Valerio Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Bertolotti, Dr Federica Postdoctoral Researcher. Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio, 11, 22100, Como, Italy.
  • Bettinelli, Professor Marco Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. Dipartimento Scientifico e Tecnologico, Univ. Verona, Ca' Vignal, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134, Verona, Italy.
  • Bianchi, Dr Riccardo Senior researcher, retired. ISTM, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, CNR, Golgi 19, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Bianchi Orlandini, Dr Annabella Senior researcher, retired. Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Compostidi Coordinazione (ISSECC - CNR), Via J. Nardi 39, I-50132, Firenze, Italy.
  • Bigi, Professor Adriana Full professor. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna Italy.
  • Bigoli, Professor Francesco Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Binda, Dr Claudia academic researcher. Dept. Genetics and Microbiology, University of Pavia, via Ferrata 1, I-27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Bindi, Dr Luca Professor of Mineralogy and Crystallography. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Florence, Via La Pira, Italy, I-50121, Firenze, Italy.
  • Bittarello, Dr Erica Collaborator. Department of mineralogy and petrology, University of Turin, Via Valperga Caluso, 35, 10100, Turin, Italy.
  • Bizzaro, Professor Giovanni Manging Director, retired. Bruker AXS S.r.l., Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Blasi, Professor Achille Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra - Sezione di Mineralogia, Università degli Studi, Via Botticelli 23, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Boanini, Dr Elisa researcher. Chemistry, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Bocchi, Dr Claudio Researcher, retired. Istituto MASPEC - C.N.R., Area delle Scienze 37A Fontanini, I-43010, Parma, Italy.
  • Bocelli, Dr Gabriele Senior researcher. Istituto dei Materiali per l'Elettronica e il Magnetismo Chimica, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Boiocchi, Dr Massimo Researcher. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, via Ferrata 1, Italy, I-27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Bolognesi, Professor Martino Full professor of Biophysics. Dip. di Fisica, Università di Genova, via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Bombieri, Professor Gabriella Full professor, retired. Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica, Università di Milano, Viale Abruzzi 42, I-20131, Milano, Italy.
  • Bonaccorsi, Dr Elena Researcher. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Bonamartini-Corradi, Professor Anna Professor retired. Dip. di Chimica, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 183, I-41100, Modena, Italy.
  • Bonazzi, Professor Paola Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze, Italy.
  • Bontempi, Dr Elza Associate Professor. Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, Università di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123, Brescia, Italy.
  • Borassi, Dr Alberto Researcher. Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università degli studi di Genova, Via Dodecaneso, 31, Italy, I-16146, Genova, Italy.
  • Borghini, Dr Giulio post-doc position. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, University of Milano, via botticelli 23, Italy, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Boscherini, Professor Federico Professor. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Università di Bologna, viale C. Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127, Bologna, Italy.
  • Bossi, Dr Roberto Tiberio Scientist. Biology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Via Pasteur 10, Milano, 20014, Nerviano, Italy.
  • Bottomley, Dr Matthew Research Scientist. GSK Vaccines Srl, -, -, Siena, Italy.
  • Braga, Professor Dario Full professor. Dip. di Chimica G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Brigatti, Professor Maria Franca Full Professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
  • Brückner, Professor Sergio Full professor. Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Università di Udine, Via del Cotonificio 108, I-33100 Udine, Italy.
  • Bruno, Professor Emiliano Full professor. Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Bruno, Professor Giuseppe Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica, Analitica e Struttura Molecolare, Università di Messina, Via Salita Sperone 31, I-98166 Villaggio S. Agata (Messina), Italy.
  • Bruno, Dr Marco Researcher. of Earth Science, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125, Turin, Italy.
  • Bruzzone, Professor Giacomo Full professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146, Genova, Italy.
  • Burla, Dr Maria Cristina Researcher. Dip. di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Piazza Università, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
  • Busetti, Professor Vilma Associate professor, retired. Università di Padova, Dip. di Chimica Organica Via Marzolo 1, I-35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Cadoni, Dr Marcella Unknown 2012. Dipartimento di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, Italy, 10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Caglioti, Professor Giuseppe Professor emeritus. Dip. di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, via Ponzio 34/3, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Cairati, Dr Paolo A. ?. Bruker Italiana S.r.l., Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Calestani, Dr Davide Researcher. Istituto dei Materiali per l'Elettronica ed il Magnetismo (IMEM), Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124, Parma, Italy.
  • Calestani, Professor Gianluca Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43010 Parma, Italy.
  • Caliandro, Dr Rocco Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia, C.N.R., via Amendola 122/o, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Callegari, Dr Athos Researcher. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Calligaris, Professor Mario Full professor, retired. Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
  • Camalli, Dr Mercedes Researcher. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica "G.Giacomello", Area della Ricerca di Roma, I-00016, Roma, Italy.
  • Cámara, Professor Dr Fernando Professor. Prof. Fernando Cámara, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di degli Studi di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso, 35, 10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Campanelli, Dr Anna Rita Researcher. Dip. di Chimica, Universita di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazz.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Candeloro De Sanctis, Professor Sofia Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Cannas, Professor Mario Full professor emeritus. Università di Cagliari, Dip. di Scienze Chimiche Via Ospedale 72, I-09124, Cagliari, Italy.
  • Cannillo, Dr Elio CNR Researc\_leader. Elio Cannillo, CNR-Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Sezione di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia.
  • Canossa, Mr Stefano PhD Student. Chemistry, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 17/A, 43124, Parma, Italy.
  • Cantele, Dr Francesca Technical assistant. Dip. di Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Canton, Dr Patrizia Assistant Professor. Dip. di Chimica Fisica, Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Via Torino 155/b, I-30170 Venezia-Mestre, Italy.
  • Cantoni, Miss Giulia PhD. Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica Chimica Fisica, Università degli Studi di Parma, V.le G. P. Usberti 17/A, PR, 43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Capasso, Professor Sante Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
  • Cappuccino, Ms Chiara PhD student. Chemistry department, University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Cappuccio, Dr Giorgio Senior researcher. CNR - Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica "G.Giacomello", Area della Ricerca di Roma, PO box 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione (Roma), Italy.
  • Capra, Mr William Master Student. Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, 20133, Milan, Italy.
  • Capsoni, Dr Doretta Researcher. Dip. Chimica Fisica, Università di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Carbonin, Professor Susanna Associate professor. Dipartimento di Geoscienze, Università di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6, I-35100, Padova, Italy.
  • Carminati, Mr Manuel PhD student. Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Adamello, 16, Milan, 20139, Milan, Italy.
  • Carnasciali, Dr Maria M. Researcher. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italia.
  • Carrozzini, Dr Benedetta Researcher. Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via G. Amendola, 122/o, I-70126 Bari Italy.
  • Caruso, Dr Francesco Research Associate. Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, CNR, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5, I-00185 Rome, Italy.
  • Casalone, Professor Gianluigi Research leader, retired. Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari - ISTM, CNR, Via C. Golgi, 19, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Cascarano, Dr Giovanni Luca Senior Researcher. Intitute of Crystallography, CNR, Via Amendola 122/O, I-70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Cassetta, Dr Alberto Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia, CNR, Area Scienza Park SS 14 km 163.5, I-34012 Basovizza TS, Italy.
  • Castellari, Professor Carlo Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica strutturale e stereochimica inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Catalano, Dr Luca PhD student. Department of Industrial Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Giulio Natta., Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli, 7, 20100, Milano, Italy.
  • Catti, Professor Michele Full professor. Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano, Italy.
  • Caucia, Dr Franca Researcher. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Cavallotti, Dr Carlo Researcher. Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Cedola, Dr Alessia Italy. Institute of Nanotechnology, CNR, Phy. Dep. Sapienza Univ. Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome, Italy.
  • Cellai, Dr Luciano Research Director. Istituto di Cristallografia, CNR, Sezione di Roma, P.O. Box 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione RM, Italy.
  • Celotti, Dr Giancarlo Senior researcher, retired. Istituto IRTEC, C.N.R., Via Granarolo 64, I-48018, Faenza RA, Italy.
  • Cendron, Dr Laura PostDoc. Biological Chemistry, University of Padova, Via G. Colombo n.3, 35121, Padova, Italy.
  • Centore, Professor Roberto Associate Professor of General and Inorganic Chemistry. Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cintia, Italy, 80126, Naples, Italy.
  • Cerreia Vioglio, Mr Paolo Ph. D. Student. Chimica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 7, 10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Cerrini, Dr Silvio Research leader. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica, CNR, C.P. n. 10, Italy Rome, 00016, Monterotondo Stazione, Italy.
  • Checchia, Mr Stefano PhD Student. Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, via C. Golgi 19, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Chiari, Professor Giacomo Full professor, retired. Getty Conservation Institute, --, -, -, Italy.
  • Chiatti, Dr Fabio Supplier. FAC Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, -, -, Turin, Italy.
  • Cianci, Dr Michele Assistant Professor. Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Marche, 60131, Ancona, Italy.
  • Ciani, Professor Gianfranco retired. Dip. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Ciccariello, Professor Salvino Associate professor. Dip. di Fisica 'G. Galilei', Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Cini, Professor Renzo Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. Chemistry, Università di Siena, Via Aldo Moro 2, I-53100, Siena, Italy.
  • Cirafici, Professor Salvino Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Cirilli, Dr Maurizio Research Scientist. Istituto di Cristallografia, Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, C.P. 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione RM, Italy.
  • Ciriotti, Dr Marco Retired. Marco Ciriotti, via San Pietro, 55, I-10070 Devesi-Ciriè (TO), Italy.
  • Civalleri, Dr Bartolomeo Post-doctoral fellow. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica-Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Civiero, Dr Laura researcher. Biology, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi, 58/B, -, 35121, Padova, Italy.
  • Coda, Professor Alessandro Full professor. Dip.to di Genetica e Microbiologia - Sez. Cristallografia, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Coiro, Dr Vincenza Maria Senior researcher, retired. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica "G.Giacomello", Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR C.P. no. 10, Monterotondo Stazione RM, I-00016, Roma, Italy.
  • Colapietro, Professor Marcello Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185, Roma, Italy.
  • Comodi, Professor Paola Associated professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia, Piazza Università, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
  • Comotti, Professor Angiolina Assistant Professor. Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 53, 20125, Milano, Italy.
  • Compostella, Miss Maria Elena PhD Student. Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, Viale G. Colombo, 3, Italy, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Conterosito, Dr Eleonora Post-Doc. Disit, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale Teresa Michel 11, 15121, Alessandria, Italy.
  • Cornia, Dr Andrea Associate Professor. Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 183, 41135, Modena, Italy.
  • Costa, Professor Giorgio Andrea Full Professor. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Costantino, Dr Ferdinando researcher. Chemistry, University of Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto n. 8, Italy, 06128, Perugia, Italy.
  • Criniti, Mr Giacomo Student. Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Crisma, Dr Marco Senion Researcher. Dr. Marco Crisma, Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, CNR, Department of Chemistry, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Crispini, Professor Dr Alessandra Associate Professor. Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Calabria, Edificio Polifunzionale, Rende, 87030, Arcavacata di Rende (Cosenza), Italy.
  • Cristino, Dr Vito Postdoctoral fellow. Chemistry, University of Ferrara, Via Luigi Borsari 46, 44121, Ferrara, Italy.
  • Crocco, Mr Domenico Phd student. Via Pellicelli n.20, 43058, Parma, Italy.
  • Croce, Dr Gianluca Laboratory technician. DISTA, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel 11, 15100, Alessandria, Italy.
  • Cruciani, Professor Giuseppe Associate Professor. Dipartimento Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • d'Agostino, Dr Simone Research Fellow. G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, Bologna, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Daldosso, Dr Matteo Scientiest. via Fleming 4, Verona, I-37135, Verona, Italy.
  • Dal Negro, Professor Alberto Full professor, retired. Dip. di Mineralogia e Petrologia, Universite de Padova, Corso Garibaldi 37, I-35137, Padova, Italy.
  • Dapiaggi, Dr Monica Full time researcher. Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, via Botticelli 23, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Dapporto, Professor Paolo Full professor. Dip. di Energetica, Università di Firenze, Via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze, Italy.
  • Degano, Dr Massimo Associate Member. Biocrystallography Unit, Dibit Fondazione San Raffaele, I-20132 Milano, Italy.
  • Della Giusta, Professor Antonio Full professor. Prof. A. Della Giusta, Dipartimento di Mineralogia, Università di Padova, Corso Garibaldi,37, 35137 Padova, Italy.
  • Delmonte, Mr Davide Ph.D Student in Physics - IMEM CNR associated. Physics Department, Parco Area delle Scienze 7/A, 43124, Parma, Italy.
  • Del Prà, Professor Antonio Full professor. Istituto di Chimica Farmaceutica, Università di Milano, Viale Abruzzi 42, I-20131 Milano, Italy.
  • De March, Dr Matteo Protein Crystallography - PostDoc. Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Structural Biology Laboratory, Strada Statale 14 - AREA Science Park - Basovizza, 34149, Trieste, Italy.
  • Demartin, Professor Francesco Associate professor. Dip. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Demontis, Professor Pierfranco Associate professor. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Sassari, via Vienna 2, I-07100, Sassari, Italy.
  • De Munno, Professor Giovanni Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università della Calabria, I-87036 Arcavacata di Rende CS, Italy.
  • Depero, Professor Laura Eleonora Full professor. Laboratorio di Strutturistica Chimica, Dip. di Ingegneria meccanica, Università di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia, Italy.
  • De Pol Blasi, Professor Carla Associate professor, retired. Università di Milano, Dip. di Scienze della Terra - Sezione di Mineralogia Via Botticelli 23, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • De Rosa, Professor Claudio Full Professor. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cintia, I-80124 Napoli, Italy.
  • De Santis, Professor Pasquale Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Destro, Professor Riccardo Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica dell`Università, via Golgi 19, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Di Cicco, Professor Andrea Professor. Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di CAmerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, MC, 62032, Camerino, Italy.
  • Di Giulio, Professor Massimo Associate Professor. Prof. Massimo Di Giulio, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica "E. De Giorgi", Università del Salento, Via Monteroni, 73100 LECCE, Italy.
  • Di Marco, Dr Stefania Senior Research Fellow. Dr. Stefania Di Marco, Okairos S.r.l., Via dei Castelli Romani, 22, 00040 Pomezia, Rome, Italy.
  • Dimasi, Dr Nazzareno Molecular Medicine, largo geroloamo gaslini 5, --select a state--, 16147, Genova, Italy.
  • Dolmella, Professor Alessandro Associate Professor in Inorganic Chemistry. Department of Drug Sciences, University of Padova, Via F. Marzolo, 5, Veneto, I-35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Domeneghetti, Professor Maria Chiara Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Domenicano, Professor Aldo Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali, Università dell`Aquila, I-67100 L`Aquila, Italy.
  • Dovesi, Professor Roberto Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica-Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 5, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Ennas, Professor Guido Associate Professor. Dip. Scienze Chimiche, Università di Cagliari, Complesso Universitario di Monserrato- SS 554 bivio per Sestu, CAGLIARI, I-09042, Monserato, Italy.
  • Erba, Dr Alessandro Postdoctoral fellow. Department of Chemistry, University of Turin, via Giuria 5, 10125, Turin, Italy.
  • Esposito, Dr Luciana Researcher. Instituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, CNR, Via Mezzocannone 16, I-80134, Napoli, Italy.
  • Fais, Dr Alessandro Ingegneria meccanica o industriale. Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129, Torino, Italy.
  • Falcicchio, Dr Aurelia Postdoc Researcher. Institute of Crystallography, CNR, Via Amendola 122/o, 70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Falini, Professor Giuseppe Professor. Chemistry, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, via Selmi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Fanelli, Dr Flavio PhD Student. Via Filippo Turati 12, 701255, Bari, Italy.
  • Fantini, Mr Riccardo University Student. Via Debbia 7, Reggio Emilia, 42031, Baiso, Italy.
  • Farinella, Mr Francesco PhD student. I am a Ph. D student, via Francesco Selmi 2, Italy/Bologna, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Favero, Dr Marco Post-doc fellow @ University of Padua. Department of Geosciences, University of Padua, via G. Gradenigo 6, Italy, 35131, Padua, Italy.
  • Fedeli, Professor Walter retired. Università dell`Aquila, Dip. di Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e dei Materiali, I-67100, L`Aquila, Italy.
  • Ferracini, Professor Elena Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Ferrari, Dr Anna Maria Researcher. Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell'Ingegneria, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Viale Allegri 15, I-42100 Reggio Emilia, Italy.
  • Ferrari, Dr Claudio Researcher. Structural and Physical, Istituto IMEM-CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, I-43010, Parma, Italy.
  • Ferrari-Belicchi, Professor Marisa Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Ferraris, Professor Giovanni Professor emeritus. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Ferretti, Professor Maurizio Full Professor. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Ferretti, Dr Valeria Researcher. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44121 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Filippini, Dr Giuseppe retired. via Vallazze 23, I-20131, Milano, Italy.
  • Foresti Serantoni, Professor Elisabetta Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi 2, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Fornari, Professor Roberto Director. Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 7/A, 43121, Parma, Italy.
  • Forneris, Dr Federico Research Investigator. Biology and Biotechnology, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata, 9, I-27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Forni, Dr Alessandra Researcher. Istituto CNR di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari via Golgi 19, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Forstner, Dr Michael Senior Research Scientist. Department of Biology -DRO, Pharmacia, via Pasteur 10, MI, I-20014, Nerviano, Italy.
  • Fracchia, Miss Martina PhD student. Chemistry, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli, 12, Pavia, 15100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Franceschi, Professor Enrico Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Franchini, Davide PhD Student. V.le Marche 99, Italy, 20159, Milan, Italy.
  • Franchini-Angela, Professor Marinella Full professor, retired. Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Frigeri, Dr Cesare Researcher. Istituto MASPEC, C.N.R., Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Fumi, Professor Fausto Gherardo Professor Emeritus. Dip. di Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Galli, Professor Ermanno Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
  • Galli, Dr Simona Researcher. Department of Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Insubria, Via Valleggio, 11, 22100, Como, Italy.
  • Gatta, Dr G. Diego Associate Professor. Earth Sciences, University of Milan, Via Botticelli 23, Italy, 20133, Milan, Italy.
  • Gatti, Dr Carlo Senior research scientist. Dr. Carlo Gatti, CNR-ISTM Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, c/o Dept Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Gavezzotti, Professor Angelo retired. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Milano, via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Gazzano, Dr Massimo Researcher. ISOF - C.N.R. Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Gemmi, Dr Mauro Researcher. Center for Nanotechnology Innovation@NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza S. Silvestro 12, 56127, Pisa, Italy.
  • Gerbasi, Dr Rosalba Researcher. Istituto di Chimica Inorganica e delle Superfici - ICIS, C.N.R. Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova, Italy.
  • Geremia, Professor Dr Silvano Associate Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. Dr. Silvano Geremia, CEB-Centre of Excellence of Biocrystallography, Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste Italy.
  • Gervasio, Professor Giuliana Full professor. Dip. di Chimica I.F.M., Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Ghigna, Professor Paolo Associate Professor of Physical Chemistry. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, I-27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Ghilardi, Dr Carlo Alfredo Senior researcher, retired. Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Compostidi Coordinazione, (I.S.S.E.C.C. - C.N.R.), Via J. Nardi 39, I-50132, Firenze, Italy.
  • Ghisletti, Dr Danila researcher. Enitecnologie S.p.A., Research Laboratories - Chemical Physics Dept., via F. Maritano 26, I-20097 San Donato Milanese (Milano), Italy.
  • Giacovazzo, Professor Carmelo Full Professor of Crystallography; Director of Institute of Crystallography- CNR, Bari. Institute of Crystallography-CNR, Via Amendola 122/O, I-70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Giannini, Dr Cinzia researcher. Dep. of Molecular Engineering, Institute of Crystallography - National Research Council, via Amendola 122/O, 70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Gigli, Dr Lara Postdoctoral Researcher. Beamlines Microscopy/Diffraction, Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, -, Trieste, Italy.
  • Giglio, Professor Edoardo Full professor, emeritus. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Gilli, Professor Gastone Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Gilli, Dr Paola Researcher. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Giordano, Professor Federico Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.
  • Giunchi, Dr Giovanni Researcher. Dr. Giovanni Giunchi, EDISON SpA, R&D, via U.Bassi 2, 20159 Milano (Italy).
  • Giurato, Miss Laura Faculty of Chemistry, University of Catania, viale Andrea Doria n.6, Italy, I-95125, Catania, Italy.
  • Glisenti, Dr Antonella Assistant Professor. Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo, 1, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Gonzalez, Miss Maria Cecilia PhD Student. Biotechnology, National University of Verona, Strada delle Grazie 15 Ca Vignal 1, Verona, 34137, Verona, Italy.
  • Graiff, Dr Claudia Associate Professor of Chemistry. Chimica Generale e Inorganica, Chimica Analitica, Chimica Fisica, University of Parma, Viale G. P. Usberti 17/A 43100-I, 43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Graziani, Professor Giorgio Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Gregorkiewitz, Professor Michael (Miguel, Michele) Associate professor. Dip. Scienze Fisiche, della Terra e dell'Ambiente, Università di Siena, Via Laterina 8, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
  • Grepioni, Professor Fabrizia Associate professor. Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Bologna, Via Selmi, 2, Bologna, Italy.
  • Guagliardi, Dr Antonietta Researcher. Institute of Crystallography, National Council of Research - CNR, via G. Amendola 122/O, I-70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Gualtieri, Professor Alessandro Francesco Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
  • Guerra, Professor Gaetano Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Salerno, via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronossi SA, Italy.
  • Guerri, Dr Annalisa Technician. Chemistry Department, University of Florence, Via della Lastruccia, 3, I-50019, Sesto Fiorentino, (FI), Italy.
  • Halabelian, Mr Levon Chant PhD student. Biosciences, Univesity of Milan, Via Celoria, 26, I-20133, Milan, Italy.
  • Hofmann, Dr Detlef Walter Maria senior researcher. CRS4, Loc. Piscina Manna, Edificio 1, CA, 09010, Pula, Italy.
  • Iafisco, Dr Michele post-doc. CNR-ISTEC Faenza (Institute of Science and Technology for Ceramics), Via Granarolo, 64, 48018, Faenza, Italy.
  • Ianelli, Professor Sandra Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Ianigro, Dr Massimo researcher. Institute of Crystallography-CNR, c/o Dip. Geomineralogico, Univ. di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Iannelli, Professor Pio Researcher. Dip. di Ing. Chimica ed Alimentare, Università di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano SA, Italy.
  • Ienco, Dr Andrea Research. Istituto Chimica Composti OrganoMetallici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy.
  • Immirzi, Professor Attilio Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi SA, Italy.
  • Imperatori, Dr Patrizia Researcher. Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, via Salaria km 29,500, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione RM, Italy.
  • Irrera, Dr Simona Research associate. Chemistry, Sapienze Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 0185, Rome, Italy.
  • Ivaldi, Professor Gabriella Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Kovàcs, Professor Alessandro Leone Full professor; Group Coordinator, Theoretical Physics of Condensed Matter. Chair of Physics, Dip. di Medicina Sperimentale, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Krajewski, Dr Adriano Senior researcher, retired. Dip. di Ceramiche Classiche, Ist. di Ricerche Tecnologiche per la Ceramica del C.N.R, Via Granarolo 64, I-48018, Faenza (Ravenna), Italy.
  • Kuleshova, Dr Liudmila consultant. Energie rinnovabile, CRS4, Loc. Pishina Manna, Ed. 1, CA, 09010, Pula, Italy.
  • Kumar, Dr Sumeet Researcher. Instituto Nationale di Fisica Nucleare INFN, Padriciano 99, 34127, Trieste, Italy.
  • Lacalamita, Dr Maria Research assistant. Dipartimento Geomineralogico, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Campus universitario, Via Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Lagomarsino, Dr Stefano Senior researcher. Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie- CNR, I-00156, Roma, Italy.
  • Lamba, Dr Doriano Senior Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia, CNR, Trieste Outstation, Area Scienza Park - Basovizza, SS 14 km 163.5, I-34149 Trieste, Italy.
  • Lamberti, Dr Carlo Researcher. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica, Chimica-Fisica e Chimica dei Materiali, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Lanfranchi, Professor Maurizio Associate professor, retired. Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 78, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Lanza, Dr Arianna PostDoc. Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza S. Silvestro 12, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
  • Lanzavecchia, Professor Salvatore Associate professor. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Laviano, Dr Rocco Researcher. Dip. Geomineralogico, Via Orabona 4, I-70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Leccabue, Dr Fabrizio Researcher, retired. Istituto MASPEC, C.N.R., Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Leoni, Professor Leonardo Full professor, retired. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126, Pisa, Italy.
  • Leoni, Dr Matteo Research assistant. Department of Materials engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano, 77, 38050, Trento, Italy.
  • Licci, Dr Francesca Researcher. Istituto MASPEC, C.N.R.Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, I-43010, Parma, Italy.
  • Licheri, Professor Giovanni Full professor, emeritus. Università di Cagliari, Dip. di Scienze Chimiche Via Ospedale 72, I-09124, Cagliari, Italy.
  • Loconte, Dr Valentina Student. Dept. of Biomedical Science, University of Padova, Viale G. Colombo 3, 35123, Padova, Italy.
  • Lolli, Dr Graziano Postdoc. Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padua, Italy.
  • Lo Presti, Dr Leonardo Researcher. Department of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Università degli Studi, Via Golgi 19, MI, 20133, Milan, Italy.
  • Loreto, Professor Lucio Associate professor, retired. Università di Roma, Dip. di Scienze della TerraPiazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185, Roma, Italy.
  • Lovergine, Professor Dr Nicola Associate Professor of Physics. Dept. of Innovation Engineering, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, Italy, I-73100, Lecce, Italy.
  • Luca, Dr Palin Post doc. Università del piemonte orientale, via bellini 25/g, Alessandria, Italy.
  • Lucchetti, Professor Gabriella Full professor. DIPTERIS, Corso Europa 26, 1 piano, Università di Genova, I-16132 Genova, Italy.
  • Maggi, Dr Sabino Senior Scientist. Institute of Crystallography, CNR, Via Giovanni Amendola 122/O, BA, I-70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Maini, Dr Lucia Professor. Dept. Chemistry Ciamician, University of Bologna, via slemi 2, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Malito, Dr Enrico Research Investigator. Structural Biology, GSK Vaccines, Via Fiorentina 1, 53100, Siena, Italy.
  • Malpezzi, Dr Luciana Researcher. Dott.ssa Luciana Malpezzi, Dip. Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli, 7, 20131 Milano - Italy.
  • Malta, Dr Viscardo Researcher, retired. Centro Studio Fisica Macromolecole, C.N.R, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Manassero, Professor Mario retired. Dip. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Mancini, Professor Anna Maria Associate professor. Dip. di Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Università di Lecce, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce, Italy.
  • Manfrinetti, Dr Pietro Researcher. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Mangani, Professor Stefano Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Siena, Via Aldo Moro, I-53100 Siena, Italy.
  • Manotti-Lanfredi, Professor Anna Maria Full professor, retired. Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Mantovani, Professor Giorgio Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Marabello, Dr Domenica Researcher. Dip. di Chimica I.F.M., Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Maras, Professor Adriana Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Marcelli, Dr Augusto scientist. Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, INFN, P.O. Box 13, RM, 00044, Frascati, Italy.
  • Marchetti, Professor Fabio Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Marchini, Laura researcher. Bercella SRL, -, -, Parma, Italy.
  • Marega, Dr Carla Researcher. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica ed Analitica, Università di Padova, via Loredan 4, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Marigo, Professor Antonio Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica ed Analitica, Università di Padova, via Loredan 4, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Marmiroli, Dr Benedetta junior scientist. Austrian SAXS Beamline c/o Sincrotrone Trieste, Austrian Academy of Sciences, ss. 14 km 163.5, 34012, Basovizza (Trieste), Italy.
  • Marongiu, Professor Giaime Full professor. Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Cagliari, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Cagliari, Italy.
  • Marra, Dr Gianluigi Resercher. Istituto Guido Donegani, Polimeri Europa, Via Fauser 4, Novara, 28100, Novara, Italy.
  • Martinelli, Dr Alberto Researcher. Chemistry & Industrial Chemistry, National Institute for the Physics of Matter - INFM, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146, Genova, Italy.
  • Martorana, Professor Antonino Full professor. Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Università di Palermo, viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo, Italy.
  • Masciocchi, Professor Norberto Full professor. Dip. Scienza e Alta Tcnologia, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como, Italy.
  • Masi, Mr Dante Technician, retired. Istituto per lo Studio della Stereochimica ed Energetica dei Composti di Coordinazione (I.S.S.E.C.C), C.N.R., Via J. Nardi 39, I-50132, Firenze, Italy.
  • Masi, Dr Maurizio Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Fisica Applicata, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Massarotti, Professor Vincenzo Full professor. Dip. Chimica Fisica, Università di Pavia, Viale Taramelli 16, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Massera, Professor Dr Chiara Associate Professor. Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, della Vita e della Sostenibilità Ambientale, Università di Parma, Viale delle Scienze 17/A, I-43124 Parma, Italy.
  • Mattevi, Professor Andrea Full Professor. Dip. di Genetica e Microbiologia - Sezione di Biologia Molecolare e Biofisica, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Mattia, Professor Carlo Andrea Associate professor. Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Università di Salerno, Via Ponte Don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Salerno), Italy.
  • Mazza, Professor Daniele Associate professor. Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129, Torino, Italy.
  • Mazza, Professor Fernando Full Professor. Chimica, Ingegneria Chimica e Materiali, University, V. Vetoio, I-67010, L'Aquila, Italy.
  • Mazzarella, Professor Lelio Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Universit/'a di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.
  • Mazzi, Professor Fiorenzo Emeritus professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Mealli, Dr Carlo Researc\_leader. Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici, ICCOM - CNR, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Firenze), Italy.
  • Meazza, Dr Lorenzo API Research Chemist. Chemsessentia, -, -, Pavia, Italy.
  • Meille, Professor Stefano Valdo Full professor. Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica "G. Natta", Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli, 7, I-20131 Milano, Italy.
  • Mellini, Professor Marcello Full professor. Dip. Scienze Terra, Università di Siena, Via Laterina 8, I-3100 Siena, Italy.
  • Menchetti, Professor Silvio Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Firenze, Via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze, Italy.
  • Menk, Dr Ralf Hendrik Researcher. Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, km 163.5, 34012, Basovizza, Italy.
  • Menzinger, Professor Filippo Full professor. di Fisica, Università di Roma II, Via O. Raimondo, I-00173, Roma, Italy.
  • Meriani, Professor Sergio Full professor; Chair of Department. Materials Engineering Department, Università di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, I-34127, Trieste, Italy.
  • Merli, Professor Marcello Associate Professor. Dipartimento di chimica e fisica della Terra, Università di Palermo, Via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo, Italy.
  • Merlino, Professor Stefano Full professor. Stefano Merlino, Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Mesto, Dr Ernesto Reseracher. Dipartimento di Scienza della Terra e Geoambientale, Università degli Studi di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Metrangolo, Professor Dr Pierangelo Chemistry Professor. Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milan, Italy.
  • Milanesio, Dr Marco Researcher. Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Via T. Michel 11, I-15121 Alessandria, Italy.
  • Millana-Fananas, Mrs Elisa PhD student. Departament Biology and Biotechnology, Laboratory Prof. Andrea Mattevi, Via Ferrata, 9, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Millini, Dr Roberto Senior researcher. Enitecnologie S.p.A., via F. Maritano 26, I-20097 San Donato Milanese (Milano), Italy.
  • Minetti, Mr Riccardo PhD student. Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Universita' di Genova, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146, Genova, Italy.
  • Minici, Dr Claudia researcher. Via Olgettina 58, 20123, Milan, Italy.
  • Miniussi, Ms Elisa PhD student in Nanotechnology. Elisa Miniussi, Dipartimento di Fisica, -Università di Trieste, Via A.Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste, Italy.
  • Minola, Mr Matteo PhD student. Phisics Department, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, Lombardia, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Mojumdar, Mr Aditya PhD Student. BIOLAB, Elettra Syncrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 Km 163,5, 34149, Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.
  • Moliterni, Dr Anna Researcher. Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Amendola, 122/O, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Monaco, Professor Hugo L. Full professor. Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Biocrystallography Laboratory, Università di Verona, Ca' Vignal 1 - Strada le Grazie 15, Verona, I-37134, Verona, Italy.
  • Monari, Professor Magda Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica G. Ciamician, Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Mongiorgi, Professor Romano Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra e Geologico-Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato 1, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Montenero, Professor Angelo Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Morandi, Professor Noris Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra e Geologico-Ambientali, Università di Bologna, Piazza di Porta S. Donato 1, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Moret, Professor Massimo Associate professor. Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano-Bicocca, Via R. Cozzi 55, I-20125 Milano, Italy.
  • Moretti, Mr Marco PhD Student. Department of Physics, Politecnico di Milano, P.zza Leonardo da Vinci, 32, Milano, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Mottana, Professor Annibale Full professor. Dip. di Scienze Geologiche, III Università di Roma, Largo S. Leonardo Murialdo 1, I-00146 Roma, Italy.
  • Moze, Professor Oscar Associate Professor. Dip. di Fisica, Università di Modena, Via G. Campi 213/A, I-41100, Modena, Italy.
  • Mugnaioli, Dr Enrico Post-doc fellowship. Center for Nanotechnology Innovation@NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127, Pisa, Italy.
  • Mura, Dr Pasquale Senior researcher, retired. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica, Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, Monterotondo Stazione, I-00016, Roma, Italy.
  • Nanna, Mr Saverio Phd university of bologna. Solida Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Via F. S. Fabri, 127/1, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Napolitano, Professor Roberto Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli, Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy.
  • Nardin, Professor Giorgio Associate professor, retired. Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
  • Natali Sora, Dr Isabella Researcher. Laboratorio di Strutturistica Chimica, Dip. di Ingegneria meccanica, Università di Brescia, Via Branze 38, I-25123 Brescia, Italy.
  • Navarra, Dr Gabriele Researcher. Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Cagliari, SS 554 bivio per Sestu, I-09042 Cagliari, Italy.
  • Negri, Dr Marco post graduate. Development, structural characterization and modeling of materials for electronics, Imem-CNR institute, Parma (Italy), Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, 43124, Parma, Italy.
  • Nicolò, Professor Francesco Associate professor. NICOLO' prof. Francesco, Dip. Scienze Chimiche - Università di Messina, viale F. Stagno D'Alcontres 31, Vill. S. Agata, I-98166 Messina ME - Italy.
  • Nunzi, Professor Antonio Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia, Piazza Università, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
  • Oberti, Dr Roberta Director of Research. Roberta Oberti, CNR-Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia.
  • Occhipinti, Dr Roberta PhD student. Earth and Enviromental Science, Via A.Ferrata 9, PV, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Onesti, Dr Silvia Head of Structural Biology. Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., SS 14 - km 163,5 - AREA Science Park, Trieste, 34149, Basovizza, Italy.
  • Orioli, Professor Pierluigi Full professor, retired. Università Firenze, Dip. Chimica via G. Capponi 7, I-50121, Firenze, Italy.
  • Orlandi, Professor Paolo Associate professor. Università di Pisa, Dip. di Scienze della TerraVia S. Maria 53, I-56126, Pisa, Italy.
  • Orlando, Dr Roberto Researcher. Roberto Orlando, Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 5, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Paiano, Dr Pasquale Post-Doc Grant. Istituto per la Microelettronica e Microsistemi, CNR, c/o Campus Universitario, Via Monteroni Pal. A3, 73100, Lecce, Italy.
  • Palenzona, Professor Andrea Professor emeritus, retired 2014. Università di Genova, Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146, Genova, Italy.
  • Pani, Dr Marcella Researcher. Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - Sez. Chimica Fisica, Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 31, I-16146 Genova, Italy.
  • Paoli, Professor Paola Associate Professor. Dep. of Industrial Engineering, University of Firenze, Via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze, Italy.
  • Paorici, Professor Carlo Full professor, retired. Dip. di Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Pasero, Professor Marco Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Pasqualato, Dr Sebastiano Facility Manager. Department of Experimental Oncology, European Institute of Oncology, Via Adamello, 16, 20139, Milan, Italy.
  • Passaglia, Professor Elio Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
  • Pastero, Dr Linda research technician. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, 10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Pasti, Fabio Maker of scientific instruments. Ital Structures, via Misone 11 D, I-38066 Riva del Garda (TN), Italy.
  • Pavel, Professor Nicolae Viorel Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma, Italy.
  • Pavese, Professor Alessandro Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Sezione di Mineralogia, Università di Milano, Via Botticelli 23, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Pedone, Professor Carlo Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Biologia, Università di Napoli "Federico II", via Mezzocannone 6, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
  • Pelizzi, Professor Giancarlo Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Pellinghelli, Professor Maria Angela Full professor, retired. Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Pelosi, Professor Giorgio Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Perchiazzi, Professor Natale Researcher. Dipartimentodi Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Via S. Maria 53, I-56126 Pisa, Italy.
  • Perduca, Dr Massimiliano Assistant Professor. Department of Biotechnology, Biocrystallography Laboratory, University of Verona, Strada le Grazie, 15 - Cà Vignal 1, 37134, Verona, Italy.
  • Petraccone, Professor Vittorio Full professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli, Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy.
  • Pica, Mr Andrea PhD student. Department of Chemistry, University of Naples, Via Cinthia, 80126, Naples, Italy.
  • Pifferi, Dr Augusto Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia, Sezione di Roma, Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, C.P. no. 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione RM, Italy.
  • Pilati, Dr Tullio Senior researcher, retired. NFMLab - Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli, 7, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Pinto, Dr Daniela Researcher. Daniela Pinto.
  • Pisanu, Miss Ambra PhD Student. Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia, Via Taramelli, 14, Lombardia, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Plaisier, Dr Jasper Rikkert Scientist. MCX beamline, Elettra - Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14 - km 163,5, Trieste, 34149, Basovizza, Italy.
  • Pochetti, Dr Giorgio Researcher. Istituto di Strutturistica Chimica "G.Giacomello", Area della Ricerca di Roma - CNR, C.P. no. 10, I-00016 Monterotondo Stazione RM, Italy.
  • Poletto, Dr Luca Senior research scientist. Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies, National Research Council, via Trasea 7, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Polidori, Dr Giampiero Researcher. Istituto di Cristallografia, CNR, via G. Amendola 122/o, I-70126 Bari, Italy.
  • Pollastri, Dr Simone PhD student. Chemical and Geological sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 103, Italy, 41125, Modena, Italy.
  • Portalone, Professor Dr Gustavo Associate Professor of General and Inorganic Chemistry. Chemistry Department, University of Rome I, P.le Aldo Moro 5, I-00185, Rome, Italy.
  • Porzio, Dr William Senior researcher. Istituto di Chimica delle Macromolecole, C.N.R., via Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Prencipe, Dr Mauro Academic Researcher. Dept. of Earth Sciences, University of Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, TO, 10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Prete, Dr Paola Researcher. IMM, CNR, via Arnesano, Italy, 73100, Lecce, Italy.
  • Priola, Dr Emanuele PostDoc. Chemistry, University of Turin, Via Pietro Giuria 9, Piemonte, 10125, Torino, Italy.
  • Proserpio, Dr Davide M. Associate Professor. Universita' degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Via Golgi, 19 - 20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Puliti, Dr Raffaella retired. Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare (ICB), C.N.R., Via Campi Flegrei 34, Comprensorio Olivetti, Napoli, I-80078, Pozzuoli, Italy.
  • Punzo, Dr Francesco Assistant Professor. Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125, Catania, Italy.
  • Purans, Professor Dr Juris Prof.. Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, ITALY, I-38050, POVO (TRENTO), Italy.
  • Quaia, Dr Gianni President. E.O.T. del dott. ing. Gianni Quaia, Via Roma, 3, 33070 Polcenigo (PORDENONE), ITALY.
  • Quartieri, Professor Simona Full professor. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita' di Messina, Salita Sperone 31, I-98166, Messina S. Agata, Italy.
  • Raimondi, Miss Giulia MSc student. Università degli Studi di Palermo, -, -, Palermo, Italy.
  • Ramirez-Rodriguez, Miss Gloria Belen phD student. Biomaaterial, Institute of Science and Techonology for Ceramics, Via Granarolo, 64, Italy, 48010, Faenza, Italy.
  • Rancan, Dr Marzio post-doc. Chemical Science, University of Padova, via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Ranchio, Mr Alessandro PhD student. DISC, Via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padua, Italy.
  • Raos, Dr Guido Associate Professor. Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131, Milano, Italy.
  • Rebuffi, Dr Luca X-ray Optics Lab Supervisor. Mechanical, Vacuum and Optical Engineering, Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, SS. 14, Km. 163,5 in Area Science Park, TS, 34149, Trieste, Italy.
  • Resnati, Professor Dr Giuseppe Professor. Department of Chemistry, Materials, Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 7, via Mancinelli, Lombardy, I-20131, Milan, Italy.
  • Riello, Dr Pietro Researcher. Dip. di Chimica Fisica, Università Ca Foscari di Venezia, Via Torino 155b, I-30170 Venezia Mestre, Italy.
  • Righi, Dr Lara Researcher. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Righini, Dr Guido Researcher. Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, P.O. box 10, I-00016, Monterotondo, Italy.
  • Rinaldi, Professor Romano Full professor (semi-retired as of 2013). Prof. R. Rinaldi, Via del Ricamo, 45, I-06125 Perugia, Italy.
  • Rinaudo, Professor Caterina Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Avanzate, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Via Borsalino 54, I-15100 Alessandria, Italy.
  • Ripamonti, Professor Alberto Professor emeritus. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Riva, Dr Fernando retired. Dip. di Chimica Complesso Monte S. Angelo -, via Cintia, I-80126, Napoli, Italy.
  • Rizzi, Professor Menico Associate Professor. DISCAFF, Università del Piemonte Orientale "A Avogadro", Viale Ferrucci 33, I-28100 Novara, Italy.
  • Rizzi, Dr Rosanna researcher. Institute of Crystallography (IC), CNR, Via Giovanni Amendola, 122/o, I-70126, Bari, Italy.
  • Rizzoli, Professor Corrado Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Robba, Dr Lucia Sales. Bruker AXS S.r.l. Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Robescu, Miss Marina Simona PhD student. Biology, Universita' degli Studi di Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58/B, Padova, 35121, Padova, Italy.
  • Rogante, Dr Massimo Director. Rogante Engineering Office, Contrada San Michele, n. 61, I-62012 Civitanova Marche (MC).
  • Romita, Dr Valeria Employee. X-Ray Department, Bruker Axs S.r.l. Via Pascoli 70/3, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Rosa, Dr Rodolfo Senior researcher. Istituto LAMEL, C.N.R., Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna, Italy.
  • Rosano, Dr Camillo Researcher. Camillo Rosano, Proteomics and Biopolymers, IRCCS AOU San Martino - IST National Institute for Cancer Research, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genova - Italy.
  • Rosato, Dr Antonio Associate Professor. Magnetic Resonance Center, University of Florence, Via Luigi Sacconi 6, Firenze, 50019, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy.
  • Rossetto, Dr Gilberto Director, retired. Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati (ICTIMA), C.N.R., Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova, Italy.
  • Rossi, Dr Marco Researcher. Dip. di Energetica, Universita di Roma "La Sapienza", Via Scarpa 14, I-00161 Roma, Italy.
  • Rossi, Dr Patrizia PhD graduate. Dip. di Ingegneria Industraile, Università di Firenze, Via S. Marta 3, I-50139 Firenze, Italy.
  • Roveri, Professor Norberto Full professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Rubbo, Professor Marco Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, Via Valperga Caluso 35, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Sabatino, Professor Piera Professor. Dip. di Chimica "G. Ciamician", Università di Bologna, Via F. Selmi 2, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Sabbioni, Dr Cristina Researcher. Istituto ISAO, C.N.R., Via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna, Italy.
  • Sacerdoti, Professor Michele Full professor. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Corso Ercole I D`Este 32, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Salviulo, Dr Gabriella Researcher. Dip. di Geologia e Petrologia, Corso Garibaldi 37, I-35137, Padova, Italy.
  • Sanson, Professor Dr Andrea Researcher. Via Marzolo, 8, Padova, Italy.
  • Sansoni, Professor Mirella retired. Dip. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, Via Venezian 21, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Santini, Professor Dr Antonello Professor. Department Food Science, University of Naples Federico II, Via Università 100, I-80055 Portici (Napoli), Italy.
  • Saviano, Dr Michele Director of Researcher. Dr. Michele Saviano, Istituto di Cristallografia del CNR, via Amendola 122/O, 70126 Bari ITALY.
  • Scandale, Professor Eugenio Full professor. Dip. Geomineralogico, Università di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.
  • Scardi, Professor Paolo Full Professor. Dept. of Civil, Environmental & Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, I-38123 via Mesiano 77, Trento, Italy.
  • Scavini, Dr Marco Researcher. Dip. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, Università di Milano, via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Schingaro, Professor Dr Emanuela Accociate Professor of Mineralogy, University of Bari, Italy. Geomineralogic, University of Bari, via E. Orabona, 4, Italy, 70125, Bari, Italy.
  • Scordari, Professor Fernando Full professor. Dip. Geomineralogico, Università di Bari, Via E. Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.
  • Secco, Dr Luciano Researcher. Mineralogia e Petrologia, Corso Garibaldi 37, I-35137, Padova, Italy.
  • Sestu, Dr Matteo PhD student. Chemical and Geological Sciences, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, ss554, Cagliari, 09042, Monserrato, Italy.
  • Sgualdino, Dr Giulio Researcher. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Shemchuk, Mr Oleksii PhD student. Via A.F. Ghiselli, 11, 40134, Bologna, Italy.
  • Sibillano, Dr Teresa Researcher. via Amendola, 70125, BARI, Italy.
  • Sica, Professor Dr Filomena Professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Napoli "Federico II", Complesso Monte S. Angelo - via Cynthia, I-80126 Napoli, Italy.
  • Siliqi, Dr Dritan Research. Istituto di Cristallografia, CNR, Via G. Amendola, 122/O, I-70126, Italy.
  • Siragusa, Fabiana Student. Via colonnello Frasconà, SICILIA, 90126, PALERMO, Italy.
  • Sironi, Professor Angelo Full professor. Prof. Angelo Sironi, Dip. Chimica Strutturale, Via Venezian 21, 20133 MILANO, ITALY.
  • Soave, Dr Raffaella CNR Researcher. Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, CNR, via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
  • Solokha, Dr Pavlo post-doc. Dipartimento di chimica e chimica industriale, University of Genoa, via Dodecaneso 31, Italy, 16146, Genoa, Italy.
  • Spadon, Professor Paola Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Organica, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Spagna, Dr Riccardo Research leader. Via Adda 35, Roma, 00015, Monterotondo, Italy.
  • Spinozzi, Dr Francesco Researcher. DISVA, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131, Ancona, Italy.
  • Stasi, Professor Francesca Associate professor, retired. Via M. Mitolo 5, I70124, Bari, Italy.
  • Suffritti, Professor Giuseppe Baldovino Full professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, I-07100, Sassari, Italy.
  • Tagliabue, Dr Giulia Post doctoral fellow. Scienze Chimiche e Ambientali, Università dell'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100, Como, Italy.
  • Tarantino, Dr Serena Researcher. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, 27100, Pavia, Italy.
  • Tazzoli, Professor Vittorio Full professor, retired. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pavia, Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Tedesco, Dr Consiglia Academic Researcher. Dept. of Chemistry, University of Salerno, via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084, Fisciano, Italy.
  • Terranova, Professor Maria Letizia Full Professor. Dip. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma, Italy.
  • Tiana, Dr Davide barbieri 10, Pavia, 27040, castelletto di branduzzo, Italy.
  • Tieghi, Professor Giuseppe Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica Industriale ed Ingegneria Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Tiripicchio, Professor Antonio Full professor, retired. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Tosi, Professor Giorgio Associate professor. Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali e della Terra, Facoltà di Ingegneria, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60100, Ancona, Italy.
  • Tribaudino, Professor Mario Professore Ordinario. Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze, 43100, Parma, Italy.
  • Ugliengo, Professor Piero Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino, Italy.
  • Ugozzoli, Professor Franco Full Professor of chemistry. Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, Parco Area delle Scienze 17A, I-43100 Parma, Italy.
  • Vaccari, Professor Giuseppe Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Ferrara, Via L. Borsari 46, I-44100 Ferrara, Italy.
  • Valdrè, Professor Ugo Full professor, emeritus. Dip. di Fisica, Università di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.
  • Valdre', Dr Giovanni Researcher - Aggregate Professor. Earth Sciences, Bologna University, P.Porta San Donato 1, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
  • Valentini, Dr Luca post-doc. Geosciences, University of Padua, Via Giotto 1, 35137, Padua, Italy.
  • Vallese, Dr Francesca PostDoc. Biomedical science, University of Padova, Via Ugo Bassi 58, Padova, 35121, Padova, Italy.
  • Venzo, Dr Alfonso Senior researcher, RETIRED. Dr. Alfonso Venzo, CNR, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Via Marzolo, 1, I-35131 PADOVA, Italy.
  • Vezzalini, Professor Maria Giovanna Full professor. Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via S. Eufemia 19, I-41100 Modena, Italy.
  • Vigliaturo, Dr Ruggero Ph.D. student. Earth Science, University of Turin, Valperga Caluso, 35, 101125, Turin, Italy.
  • Villamagua, Mr Luis Miguel Student. Residence Maisonettes, Blocco 15. App. 4, via Pietro Bucci, 87040, Rende, Italia, Cosenza, 87036, Rende, Italy.
  • Villani, Dr Marco Postdoctoral Researcher. IMEM, CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze, 37/A, 43124, Parma, Italy.
  • Visconti, Mr Marco Ph.D student. Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Venezian, 21, 20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Vitagliano, Dr Luigi Senior researcher. Istituto di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Mezzocannone 6, I-80134, Napoli, Italy.
  • Vivani, Professor Riccardo Associate professor. Dip. di Chimica, Università di Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia, Italy.
  • Zagari, Professor Adriana Full professor. Dip. di Chimica Biologica, Universit/'a di Napoli "Federico II", Via Mezzocannone, 6, I-80134 Napoli, Italy.
  • Zanazzi, Professor Pierfrancesco Full professor. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Perugia, Piazza Università, I-06123, Perugia, Italy.
  • Zanella, Dr Pierino Director, ICTIMA-CNR. Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati, ICTIMA, C.N.R., Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova, Italy.
  • Zanetti, Dr Alberto Researcher. Centro di Studio per la Cristallochimica e la Cristallografia C.N.R., Via Ferrata 1, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.
  • Zangrando, Professor Ennio Associate professor. Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste, Italy.
  • Zannetti, Professor Roberto retired. Dip. di Chimica Inorganica Metallorganica ed Analitica, Università di Padova, via Loredan 4, I-35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Zanolla, Miss Debora PhD Student. Dept. of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, P.Le Europa, 1, 34127, Trieste, Italy.
  • Zanotti, Professor Giuseppe Full professor. Dept. of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Viale G. Colombo 3, PD, 35131, Padova, Italy.
  • Zanotti, Dr Lucio Director of Institute. Istituto IMEM - C.N.R., Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, I-43010, Loc. Fontanini - Parma, Italy.
  • Zanzotto, Giovanni Researcher. Giovanni Zanzotto, DMMMSA, Univ. Padova, Via Belzoni 7, 35131 Padova, Italy.
  • Zappettini, Dr Andrea Researcher. Istituto Materiali Elettronica Magnetismo, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Parco Area delle scienze 37/a, 43010, Parma, Italy.
  • Zefiro, Dr Livio Retired. Dip. per lo Studio del Territorio e le sue Risorse, Università di Genova, Corso Europa 26, I-16132, Genova, Italy.
  • Zerbetto, Mr Mirco study chemistry at the university. Dipartimento di scienze chimiche, Università degli studi di Padova, Via Campon 5/e, Veneto / Padova / Italy, 35040, Casale di Scodosia (PD), Italy.
  • Zerbi, Professor Giuseppe Full professor of material science. Dip. di Chimica Industriale, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. da Vinci 32, I-20133, Milano, Italy.
  • Zosi, Professor Gianfranco Luigi Associate professor. Dip. di Fisica Generale "A. Avogadro", Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, Italy.

Italy

This is a list of forthcoming meetings in Italy that are recorded in the IUCr Calendar of Events. Please let us know of any that are missing by completing this form or sending an email to forthcoming.meetings@iucr.org.

4th International Diamond School: Geology, Gemology and Exploration Italy 29th Jan 2018 - 2nd Feb 2018
Molecular and Ionic Clusters (GRS) Italy 24th Feb 2018 - 25th Feb 2018
Molecular and Ionic Clusters (GRC) Italy 25th Feb 2018 - 2nd Mar 2018
Workshop on single-particle cryo-EM and tomography Italy 9th Apr 2018 - 13th Apr 2018
Electron Crystallography. 51st Erice Course. Italy 1st Jun 2018 - 10th Jun 2018
First Erice International School on Quantum Crystallography. 52nd Erice Course Italy 1st Jun 2018 - 10th Jun 2018
2nd Meeting on Porous Molecular Solids (PoMoS) Italy 6th Jun 2018 - 8th Jun 2018
XTOP2018. XIV Biennial Conference of High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and Imaging Italy 3rd Sep 2018 - 7th Sep 2018

Reports of past activities in Italy

2015 Erice Erice School 2015
2012 Rome Centennial in Italy
2012 Trieste ICTP School
2012 Erice 45th Erice School
2011 Erice Erice Schools 2011
2009 Erice Erice School 2009
2008 Gargnano, Garda lake Mathcryst school
2006 Erice 38th course
2004 Rome Mineral phases
2003 Erice High pressure
2002 Erice Erice
1999 Erice Erice 1999
1997 Erice Erice Schools 1997
1997 Parma EPDIC 5

All events

This is a concise listing of all events in this country that are associated with the International Year of Crystallography 2014 and its follow-up initiatives.

6th Jun 2013 Past, Present, and Future of Crystallography@Politecnico di Milano: From Small Molecules to Macromolecules and Supramolecular Structures Milano
4th Sep 2013 Crystallography Beyond Diffraction, 2nd Edition Camerino
12th Sep 2013 Round-table on IYCr2014 at MISSCA Como
27th Sep 2013 The room of crystals Parma
6th Oct 2013 CRISTALLI! Padova
19th Oct 2013 L'enigma Escher Reggio Emilia
1st Nov 2013 Edible crystals... can you believe it? Genova
2nd Nov 2013 Crystals to wear Palazzo Ducale, Sala del Minor Consiglio P.zza Matteotti 9 - Genova
21st Nov 2013 Natta's seeds grow Milan, Politecnico di Milano
8th Jan 2014 NIS colloquium on "Time and space resolved techniques with Synchrotron Radiation beams" Turin
18th Jan 2014 Crystals that change Piazza Maggiore, Bologna
13th Feb 2014 From Penrose tilings to Siberian glaciers: the extraordinary search for natural quasicrystals Aula Magna of the University of Florence
22nd Feb 2014 Crystalline precision Piazza Maggiore, Bologna
3rd Mar 2014 2014: un mondo di cristalli Parma
13th Mar 2014 Giornata di Inaugurazione IYCr2014@UNISA Fisciano
20th Mar 2014 La Cristallografia a Milano nel centenario della scoperta: Scienze della Terra, Chimica, Polimeri, Scienze della Vita Palazzo Brera – Via Brera 28, Milano – Sala delle Adunanze
10th Apr 2014 Viaggio nel mondo dei cristalli - A journey into the world of crystals Alessandria
11th Apr 2014 Alla Scoperta dei Cristalli: la cristallografia per svelare i misteri della materia e le sue proprietà Naples
15th Apr 2014 Exploring the nanoworld Siena
28th Apr 2014 The Discovery of X-ray Diffraction: from Crystals to the Structure of DNA Siena
30th Apr 2014 XII Edition SoNS School Erice (Sicily, Italy)
8th May 2014 La doppia elica del DNA: la storia della scoperta Benevento
19th May 2014 The International Year of Crystallography IYCr2014 at Siena Siena
28th May 2014 SIMPLy CRIST Sesto Fiorentino, FIRENZE
30th May 2014 International School of Crystallography: 47th Course Erice
1st Jun 2014 Let's Play with Crystals Siena
5th Jun 2014 We wanted to see the atoms: 100 years of crystallography Alessandria
6th Jun 2014 GMT2014 Tavagnasco mineralogical days Tavagnasco (Piedmont)
10th Jun 2014 International Expo/Sir Workshop Bari
11th Jun 2014 Crystals! at Unimi Milano
13th Jun 2014 La simmetria, i cristalli, le strutture, Escher, le opere, le mirabili molecole io canto Caraglio
18th Jun 2014 1st International Symposium on Halogen Bonding (ISXB-1) Porto Cesareo (LECCE)
25th Jun 2014 Impact of Crystallography on Modern Science Turin
28th Aug 2014 First European Crystallography School Pavia
10th Sep 2014 Plenary Lecture at the first SGI-SIMP meeting Milano
15th Sep 2014 2nd Joint AIC-SILS conference Florence
26th Sep 2014 The wonders of crystals at the Researchers' Night in Parma Parma
8th Oct 2014 Cristallography…the beauty of order Torino
11th Oct 2014 CRISTALLI!@Parma Parma
13th Oct 2014 IYCr2014: Challenges in Crystallography Rome
16th Oct 2014 Crystal (cl)Year Torino
18th Oct 2014 Crystals around us: food, spa and medicines Parma
31st Oct 2014 Crystal or treat? Halloween at CRISTALLI!@PARMA Parma
5th Nov 2014 Cristalli ... ad arte Vercelli
3rd Dec 2014 Precession Electron Diffraction Siena
24th Jan 2015 Cristalli ai raggi X Modena
Birth and impact of X-ray crystallography A historical perspective by Davide Viterbo, published in Il Nuovo Saggiatore.
Italian commemorative postmark Pavia

A commemorative postmark has been issued by the Italian Post Office to mark the inauguration of the First European Crystallography School, as part of the IYCr 2014 celebrations.

Cristallografia: la visione a raggi X Teaching pamphlet for high school teachers written in Italian
CrystallinItaly: Crystallography at your door A list of 100 prominent italian sites spanning from monuments to historical places to natural beauties linked to crystallography
Tuscany (Italy): Crystal Growing Competition Sesto Fiorentino (FI) First Crystal Growing Competition organized in Tuscany for pupils of high schools to celebrate the International Year of Crystallography. The competition is organized in the framework of the "Progetto Lauree Scientifiche" (Scientific Degrees Project).

This Special Report was published in the IUCr Newsletter, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2004).

[Map of Italy]

Crystallography in Italy

Italy can boast an old tradition in the field of Crystallography. It suffices to remember that in the 16th century, the Medici Family gathered in Florence one of the oldest and most precious collections of natural crystals and morphological studies were initiated by Vannoccio Biringuccio. Here, however, we wish to concentrate on the birth and growth of modern structural crystallography in Italy.

The first structural work with X-ray diffraction was carried out around 1923-24 in Milano by the group headed by G. Bruni and formed by G.R. Levi, A. Ferrari, G. Peyronel and G. Natta. Not only did G. Natta pioneer X-ray crystallography in Italy, but, when he moved his interest to polymer science, with his co-workers P. Corradini and G. Allegra, he applied X-ray diffraction to the structural characterization of synthetic polymers. For his outstanding results in this field he became Nobel Laureate for Chemistry in 1963. A. Ferrari was the founder of the crystallographic school in Parma, where his co-workers, L. Cavalca and M. Nardelli, were very successful in creating and maintaining a large and productive group.

In the mid thirties G. Giacomello in Rome and S. Bezzi in Padova were the first to apply X-ray crystallography to organic compounds and in 1954 they founded the first Centres for Structural Chemistry of the National Research Council (CNR) and established international collaborations. G. Giacomello had among his co-workers V. Caglioti, P. Corradini, A.M. Liquori and A. Ripamonti. Today, the important "G. Giacomello" Institute for Structural Chemistry, located in Monterotondo (near Rome), bears the name of its founder. When A.M. Liquori moved to Naples in the early sixties, he encouraged the young L. Mazzarella to visit M.F. Perutz in Cambridge. There he contributed to a pioneering paper on the crystal structure of haemoglobin, thus becoming the first Italian protein crystallographer.

In Padova, S. Bezzi initially dedicated his interest to set up and improve the experimental and computational methodologies of crystal structure analysis and in 1940 he published the structure of p-dibromobenzene. In the CNR Centre he founded in Padova, Bezzi's co-workers were U. Croatto, V. Scatturin, and C. Panattoni, who carried out relevant research in the field of structural inorganic chemistry, and M. Mammi with his group, who developed the initial route of organic crystal chemistry into protein crystallography. In 1975 Mammi became the director of the CNR Centre for the Study of Biopolymers.

The structural study of organic compounds in the late fifties was also promoted by M. Simonetta in Milano. He was mainly a theoretical chemist, but his farsightedness led him to pursue the direct interaction between crystallographers and theoreticians.

In the sixties, in Florence, L. Sacconi, an internationally renowned transition metal chemist, was among the first in Italy to understand the enormous potential of crystallography in coordination and organometallic chemistry, especially if aimed at establishing basic correlations between structure and properties. Today, the members of the former Sacconi's team propose themselves as the enthusiastic organisers of the XXth IUCr meeting in 2005.

In the field of mineralogical crystallography, the first structural work was carried out in the late thirties in Rome by the group of E. Onorato. After the war, the structural analysis of minerals continued to be developed by various groups. In Rome, F. Sgarlata developed a very efficient set of crystallographic programs for the Olivetti ELEA computer (at that time a valid competitor of IBM 1620). In 1958 the group directed by M. Fenoglio in Turin, already active before the war, acquired the first 3-circle single-crystal diffractometer in Italy and initiated the era of modern structure analysis. In Florence, the Mineralogy Institute of the University, directed by G. Carobbi, was home to the early work of F. Mazzi, G. Cocco and C. Garavelli, who later developed important crystallographic schools in Pavia, Perugia and Bari. In Pisa, S. Bonatti started major research in crystallography, which was then successfully developed by G. Gottardi, S. Merlino and co-workers. The groups in Florence, Genoa, Pavia, Pisa, Rome and Turin soon joined their efforts and founded the CNR National Center of Crystallography, later concentrated only in Pavia.

In the mid sixties the role of Crystallography started to enlarge towards other fields.

The Italian Crystal Growth Association (AICC) was created soon after the birth of the IOCG (International Organization for Crystal Growth) and collected practically all the Italian growers from industry, CNR and the academic world. Italian growers proved very active not only from the scientific point of view, but also in the organisation of many national and international schools and meetings.

In the field of protein crystallography, after the groups in Naples and Padova a third important group was established in Pavia and today Italy can count more than 15 groups.

The role of Italian crystallography within the IUCr (of which Italy has been an official member since its creation in 1947) received a first important recognition when Rome was chosen as the site of the VIth IUCr Congress in 1963.

[Rome 1967]Rome 1967 foundation meeting of the Italian Crystallographic Association.
In 1967 the need to coordinate crystallographic activities led to the foundation of the Italian Crystallographic Association (AIC). From the 108 founding members, mainly chemists and mineralogists, the association rapidly enlarged its membership (reaching now over 300) as well as its interests. Physicists, Biologists, and Materials Scientists joined AIC and in 1993 the unification with AICC was the last important step to enlarge the scope of the association.
[AIC School, Perugia, 1989]Participants to the AIC School on Interaction Forces in Crystals, Perugia September 1989.
The first AIC president was F. Mazzi and the first congress was held in January 1968 in Perugia. The annual meetings have become the most important occasions of scientific interchange. Joint congresses with Yugoslav and Swiss colleagues have also been organized. A separate section of this presentation is devoted to the last XXXIII AIC Congress held in Trieste. Teaching all basic aspects of crystallography, especially to young people, is one of the AIC main goals and, since 1971, the "Summer School" has become the other important event in our scientific life (usually organized in Perugia by A. Nunzi).

M.M. Woolfson, with the help of M. Nardelli and his group, organized the "Nato Advanced Study Institute on Direct and Patterson Methods" in Parma in 1970. This event led to the first School of Crystallography held in Erice in 1974. Thanks to the invaluable organizational skills of Lodovico (his surname is redundant among crystallographers), recently enriched by the charm and efficiency of Paola Spadon, the Erice School (www.crystalerice.org) is now a regular international event touching all innovative aspects of Crystallography, with 36 Courses organized, gathering more than 4000 participants.

In 1972 L. Cavalca and M. Nardelli founded the journal Crystal Structure Communication in Parma. The quality of the structural papers, together with the powerful automatic procedures developed by the editors to control the quality of the numeric data, convinced the IUCr to transform CSC into Acta Cryst. C in 1983.

Many Italian crystallographers have been chairpersons and members of numerous IUCr commissions and Co-editors of Acta Cryst. M. Nardelli was elected President of the IUCr in 1987, and in 2002 D. Viterbo was elected to the Executive Committee. The 154 Italian entries in the 3rd edition (1965) of the World Directory of Crystallographers have increased to 337 in the last 1997 edition, making Italy the sixth largest country in the world.

Italy has always been active within the European Crystallographic Committee since its founding in 1972, and in the period 1984-90, G. Filippini was secretary of the committee. In 1985 the IXth European Crystallographic Congress (ECM-9) organized by G. Ferraris in Torino was attended by more than 650 people and showed the first large attendance from East European countries. Also ECM-13 in 1991, initially planned in Ljubljana, was finally held in Trieste. When in 1997 in Lisbon the European Crystallographic Association (ECA) was founded, C. Giacovazzo was elected to be the first Chairman. More recently, G. Filippini and D. Viterbo were elected to the ECA Executive Committee in 2003 in Durban (ECM-21). C. Giacovazzo was awarded the third ECA Prize for his outstanding achievements in the field of Direct Methods.

[Florence poster]
Italy will host the XXth IUCr Congress in 2005 in Florence, a city of unequalled history, beauty and receptivity. The high level of the scientific activity carried out in Florence, the enthusiasm and competence of C. Mealli, P. Paoli and our other Florentine colleagues and the guaranteed help and support of the whole Italian crystallographic community, will make Florence 2005 an unforgettable event from both a scientific and social point of view. Italian Crystallographers welcome all of you in Florence!

Davide Viterbo

NOTE - The Cover Story on Crystallography in Italy is the result of the cooperation of several people, but the main responsibility for its structure goes to Davide Viterbo and Paola Spadon, who have coordinated the work. We are aware that we have certainly missed or forgotten something, and we apologize in advance to all those who may feel they have been underrepresented. This presentation has suggested creating a special page in the AIC web-site (http://aic.istm.cnr.it) in which more details on the crystallographic activities in Italy are given and constantly updated. A special thanks to all those who have contributed to this work and helped us in this task.

Davide Viterbo (member of the IUCr Executive Committee)
Paola Spadon (president of the Italian Crystallographic Association)

Chemical crystallography

The pioneering and seminal work of the group of bright Italian crystallographers who worked in a number of strategic Italian Universities in the '60's gave birth to an Italian crystallographic Golden Age, and the urgence of "seeing the structure, understanding the chemistry" rapidly spread all over Italy. Today, along with the initial landmarks settled in Milan, Parma, Rome, Naples, Padua, Florence, Pavia, a large number of lively and creative laboratories has flourished in many other sites, playing crucial roles in the European landscape of Structural Chemistry.

In 2005, Florence will be the world's scientific capital of crystallography; the Florentine crystallographic community is centred around two laboratories, where the main research topics embrace structure-properties relationships of inorganic and organometallic compounds studied by experimental crystal structure analysis, systematic usage of structural databases, theoretical quantum-mechanical calculations[1], structure-activity relationships for small pharmacological organic molecules and macrocyclic metal complexes, coordination compounds of biological interest, and the interaction of small molecules (P4, P4S3) with metal-ligand systems[2].

[Solid state adducts] Solid State Adducts between C60 and Decamethylferrocene (A. Arrais, E. Diana, R. Gobetto, M. Milanesio, D. Viterbo, P.L. Stanghellini, Eur. J. Inorg. Chem, 2003, 1186-1192).
In Milan three laboratories operate in the field of structural chemistry, investigating: electrostatic properties by topological analysis of experimental electron density between 15K and 300K[3]; supramolecular architectures assembled by halogen bonding and organometallic complexes, weak H-bonds and metal-metal interactions by multipolar analysis of electron densities[4]; conventional X-ray single crystal diffractometry on organometallics and minerals, accurate LT structural determinations and topological analysis of experimental and theoretical charge densities, ab initio powder diffraction, structural characterisation of materials, neutron diffraction, synthesis and characterisation of coordination polymers and supramolecular architectures, molecular modelling, crystal structure prediction, and tomographic methods[5].
[Polycatenation] New policatenation type in [Ni6(bpe)10(H2O)16](SO4)6 × xH2O [bpe = bis(4-pyridyl)ethane] (L. Carlucci, G. Ciani, D.M. Proserpio, S. Rizzato, Cryst.Eng. Comm., 2003, 5(34), 190-199).
In Parma more than 20 researchers and technicians operate in the Laboratorio di Strutturistica[6], which has inherited the legacy of the Centro di Studio per la Strutturistica Diffrattometrica del C.N.R., founded in 1968. The scientific activity spans from structural and theoretical aspects of supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering of organic/inorganic hybrid networks, to bioinorganic and bioorganic medicinal chemistry, from structure-reactivity relationships of organometallic compounds, to the characterization of superconducting and magnetic materials and to computational crystallography.

In Bologna, four groups operate in the laboratories of the Dipartimento di Chimica[7], where research topics cover: hazard monitoring of asbestos, bone crystal growth, self-assembly of collagen fibers, drug delivery, hydroxyapatite based materials, chrysotile nanotubes, silica xero-gels, quantum wires, chemical-physical characterization of morphology and surface activity; design and development of new inorganic and composite materials with tailored functional properties (nano- and micro-crystalline inorganic phases, oriented growth of inorganic phases on nanostructured matrices, and new biomaterials); group 8 metal carbonyl clusters and stereochemistry of low valent metal complexes; design of crystalline materials for applications in solid/solid and solid/gas solvent-free reactions, and polymorphism.

In Rome structure-activity studies on compounds of biopharmaceutical and industrial interest are a traditional interest of the IC-CNR Institute[8]. The research activities address: antiviral compounds; inhibitor-resistant β-lactamase to design new powerful inhibitors; design and synthesis of new peptide inhibitors of Zn-proteinases involved in inflammatory processes; polyamine catabolism in plants; inorganic compounds with possible antineoplastic activity; coordination and organometallic compounds of industrial interest. Researchers at the Dipartimento di Chimica[9] have been active for many years studying the theoretical/experimental study and design of molecular adducts of nucleobases as a model for the DNA/RNA bases recognition.

Research activity at the U. of Genova[10] started in the early fifties. Since then, more than one thousand intermetallic compounds have been synthesized and structurally characterised; seventy new structure types have been discovered, and currently the crystal chemistry of intermetallic compounds, and structure-activity relationships for pharmaceutical organic compounds by XRD and QM methods are studied.

In Ferrara the structural physical chemistry group[11] has contributed remarkably to the study of hydrogen bonded systems, and is currently involved in quantum-mechanical calculations of H-bonded systems, proton-transfer pathways, Bader's AIM topological analysis, molecular pharmacology, biothermodynamics, and molecular modelling.

In Turin crystal and molecular structures of coordination compounds and organometallic complexes have been studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction since the 1970s at the Laboratorio di Chimica Strutturale[12]. Study of experimental electron density and multipolar analysis from low temperature diffraction data of model molecules have been addressed since the late 1990s.

In Padua at the Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche solid-state structural analyses of bioinorganic drugs, psychotropic agents belonging to the classes of cognition activators and nootropics, and theoretical analysis of coordination complexes and psychotropic agents are performed[13], while at the CNR Istit. di Chimica Biomolecolare crystallographic work is devoted to the conformational characterization of peptide antibiotics (peptaibols) and analogs thereof, synthetic peptides carrying non standard amino acid residues, and peptide foldamers[14].

In Messina the Interdepartmental Centre[15] shares human resources from many departments in the University. It is organized into three groups whose research topics cover physical and chemical crystallography, X-ray applications in cultural heritage materials, X-ray applications in materials science and engineering.

In Alessandria, the structural physical chemistry group[16] is involved in the study of biopharmacological compounds and of zeolites of catalytic interest. Weak interactions in molecular crystals and organic-inorganic interactions in relation to the biomineralization process are also being investigated.

At the U. of Calabria[17] the current scientific fields of interest are the study of structure and magnetic behaviour of paramagnetic coordination compounds, and the interaction between metal ions and DNA components.

In Perugia[18] layered metal phosphates and phosphonates and synthetic hydrotalcites are designed for potential application in catalysis, proton conduction, ionic and molecular recognition and their structures are studied by powder diffraction.

Coordinated by Alessia Bacchi (alessia.bacchi@unipr.it)
  • [1] ICCOM - CNR, Area Ricerca CNR di Firenze, carlo.mealli@iccom.cnr.it
  • [2] Centro Interdip. di Cristallografia Strutturale - U. Firenze, cen-crist@crist.unifi.it
  • [3] Dip. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica, U. Milano, riccardo.destro@unimi.it
  • [4] ISTM-CNR, sede di Milano, direttore@istm.cnr.it
  • [5] Dip. di Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, U. Milano, http://dcssi.istm.cnr.it/
  • [6] Dip. di Chimica G.I.A.F. - U. Parma, www.chim.unipr.it/
  • [7] Dip. di Chimica 'G. Ciamician', U. Bologna, www.ciam.unibo.it/
  • [8] IC-CNR Sede di Bari, Sezione di Roma, Unità Staccata di Trieste, riccardo.spagna@ic.cnr.it
  • [9] Dip. di Chimica - U. Roma La Sapienza, g.portalone@caspur.it
  • [10] Dip. di Chimica e Chimica Industriale - U. Genova, cfmet@chimica.unige.it
  • [11] Dip. di Chimica, U. Ferrara, ggilli.chim@unife.it
  • [12] Dip. di Chimica I.F.M., U. Torino, giuliana.gervasio@unito.it
  • [13] Dip. di Scienze Farmaceutiche - U. Padova, giuliano.bandoli@unipd.it.
  • [14] Inst. di Chimica Biomolecolare, CNR - Dip. di Chimica Organica - U.Padova, marco.crisma@unipd.it
  • [15] Ctr Interdip. per la Diffrattometria a Raggi-X, U. Messina, bruno@chem.unime.it
  • [16] DISTA, U. Piemonte Orientale 'A. Avogadro', davide.viterbo@mfn.unipmn.it
  • [17] Dip. di Chimica, U. Calabria, demunno@unical.it
  • [18] Dip. di Chimica, U. Perugia, ric@unipg.it.

[Petrogenesis] Crystal-chemical studies of rock-forming minerals allow a better understanding of petrogenetic processes, either related to subduction or to magmatic activity. (courtesy of R. Oberti)

Mineralogical crystallography

Internationally, Italian research in the field of Mineralogy is very highly regarded, thanks to its strong crystallographic character, as recently witnessed by the role played by Italian mineralogists in founding and ruling the Mineralogical Crystallography SIG of ECA[1] and the Commission on Inorganic and Mineral Structures of IUCr[2]. The Italians also play a fundamental role in the organizing and contributing to crystallography-oriented symposia and schools organized by the International Mineralogical Association[3] and the European Union of Mineralogy[4]. Italy is a leader in the characterization of new and rare mineral species[5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13], a topic where the structural characterization by X-ray and electron diffraction plays a crucial role. Low crystallinity and complexity of the structures that are met in this type of research, often do not allow the use of automatic methods for structure solution; thus, the development and use of other modern experimental (TEM[9,10,11]; spectroscopy like EXAFS[7,11,14], IR, Mössbauer, NMR, XANES[7,11,14], XPS) and theoretical approaches have been stimulated. Important theoretical contributions have been published in the field of modular crystallography (OD theory, polysomatism, polytypism, twinning, incommensurate structures)[5,9,10,11], an approach applicable to large families of technological materials as well. The spectroscopic methods mentioned have also been applied to the study of local geometry, oxidation state and short-range ordering. The experimental results are often supported by theoretical calculations, e.g. molecular dynamics and modelling of crystal structures and of absorption spectra[7,8,10,12,14,15,16].

[Carlosturanite] HRTEM image of carlosturanite (after Carlo Sturani, Professor in Torino), cylindrical chrysotile and polygonal serpentine intergrown fibres as seen along the fibre axes. (Deriu, A., Ferraris, G., Belluso, E. Phys. Chem. Minerals, 21, 1994, 222-227).
The crystal-chemical investigation of some main groups of rockforming minerals (amphiboles[8,10], carbonates[8], feldspars[10,14], garnets[8], micas[7,10,13,15,17], pyroxenes[8,10,18], pyroxenoids[9], serpentines[10,11], spinels[6,10,18], staurolites[8], zeolites[7,9,15,16], including meteorites[11]) is another outstanding feature of Italian mineralogical crystallography. In particular, this type of research led to the development of crystallographic investigations at non-ambient conditions (in order to study the stability, transformations and kinetics of phases and to establish state equations) and of detailed crystal-chemical analysis and structure modelling (with the aim to relate cation order and site geometry to the P, T, X conditions of formation)[7,8,9,10,11,15,17,19]. The latter results combine structure refinement, SIMS and IR analysis when light elements are involved[8]. For most of the mentioned groups of minerals, unique databases of crystal-chemical data have been established[8].

Some of the results obtained by Italian mineralogical crystallographers are of primary interest for materials and environmental sciences, technology and industrial processes, like those concerning the properties of cationic exchange, diffusion, heterogeneous catalysis and gas dehydration of microporous minerals (zeolites[7,15,16], titanosililcates[9,10], layered silicates[7,15]) and the calcium silicates hydrates so important in the chemistry of cement (e.g. the tobermorite group)[9].

Coordinated by Giovanni Ferraris (giovanni.ferraris@unito.it)
  • [1] www.clik.to/ecasig5
  • [2] www.lcm3b.uhp-nancy.fr/cims/
  • [3] www.obs.univ-bpclermont.fr/ima/; www.geo.vu.nl/users/ima-cnmmn
  • [4] www.univie.ac.at/Mineralogie/EMU/
  • [5] DST (Dip. di Scienze della Terra) U. Firenze - crystal@cesit1.unifi.it
  • [6] DST U. Genova - lucchett@mbox.dipteris.unige.it
  • [7] DST U. Modena - brigatti@mail.unimo.it; vezzalini.giovanna@mail.unimo.it
  • [8] Inst. di Geoscienze e Georisorse CNR Pavia - www.igg.cnr.it/indexpavia_ita.htm
  • [9] DST U. Pisa - merlino@dst.unipi.it
  • [10] Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche U. Torino - www.dsmp.unito.it/
  • [11] DST U. Siena - mellini@unisi.it
  • [12] Dip. di Scienze Geologiche U. Roma Tre - mottana@uniroma3.it
  • [13] Dip. Geomineralogico U. Bari - scordari@lgxserve.ciseca.uniba.it
  • [14] DST U. Camerino - paris@camars.unicam.it
  • [15] DST U. Milano - artioli@iummix.terra.unimi.it
  • [16] DST U. Ferrara - alberto.alberti@unife.it
  • [17] DST U. Perugia - zanazzi@unipg.it
  • [18] Dip. di Mineralogia U. Padova - adg@epidote.dmp.unipd.it
  • [19] DST U. Roma La Sapienza - Adriana.Maras@uniroma1.ite

Crystal growth

[ISSCG-10] Participants to the 10th Summer School on Crystal Growth (ISSCG-10), Rimini, Hotel Continental.
Relevant aspects of crystal growth (CG) are currently investigated in universities, private and governmental laboratories and industries. Advanced characterization techniques are usually available for crystal quality assessment. Not all the Italian crystal growers are AIC members, but most of them attend the annual AIC meetings, which always include a specific symposium. The proceedings of these symposia are occasionally published. A look at the last of them[1] might give an idea of the CG activity in Italy. Its favorable acknowledgement abroad helped promote international meetings and schools in Italy in recent years, see, e.g., [2-5].

Most of the CG research has been devoted to the deposition and characterization of epitaxial and polycrystalline layers, prepared by vapour phase (CVD, MOCVD, MBE, sputtering, pulsed-laser ablation, etc.) and sol-gel techniques. The motivations are usually the improvement of solid-state devices for special applications. The main activity is on semiconductors, such as silicon and Si-Ge alloys[6-9], III-V and II-VI compounds[1-6,10-17]; but also on magnetic materials[18-19], superconductors[10-11,20], diamond coatings and others.

Bulk CG technology is developed: (a) in industries: MEMC Electronics Materials grows silicon in Meran[9] while Venezia Technologies grows III-V compounds (GaAs, InP[21]) in Venice; (b) in governmental laboratories: crystals of II-VI[10,22] and III-V semiconductor compounds and organics (urea and derivatives, urotropine, etc.[10,23]) are grown by IMEM-CNR in Parma; (c) in universities: crystalline samples, usually grown from solution, are proteins[25], carbonates, phosphates and sulphates[26,27], zeolites[28], and sugars[30].

Other topics worth mentioning are the growth of nanocrystals (carbon[29,11,22] and various oxides[1,22]) and space growth[1,4,23-25].

As to CG theory, research is developed from a phenomenological point of view, aiming at optimising, through modelling, CG processes in bulk and epitaxial technology (see, e.g., [1-7,23-25]), as well as at evaluating the relevance of space growth experiments[1,4,24-25]. Surface energy concepts are also made use of to study nucleation and aspects of crystal morphology[26].

Finally, research is also carried out on the development of methods for estimating unknown parameters through 'first-principles' calculations and the development of 'multiscale' approaches, in view of linking atomistic, crystallographic and phenomenological aspects in CG[1,4,7].

Coordinated by Carlo Paorici (paorici@fis.unipr.it)
  • [1] Proc. Italian Crystal Growth Symp., Naples, Sept.1999; Materials Chem.Phys. (single issue), R. Fornari, C. Paorici, A. Zagari eds., 66 (2000).
  • [2] Proc. ISSCG-10, Rimini, June 1998 (promoted by IOCG and IUCr); published as Theoretical and Technological Aspects of Crystal Growth, R.Fornari, C.Paorici eds., Transtech, Zurich (1998).
  • [3] Proc. Intern. School on Crystal Growth of Materials for Energy Production and Energy-saving Applications (promoted by IUCr), R. Fornari. L. Sorba eds., ETS, Trieste (2001).
  • [4] Proc. Joint Italo-French Meeting on Crystal Growth: from Basic to Applied, S.Carrà, C.Paorici eds., Academy of Lincei, Rome (2003).
  • [5] Proc. European Workshop on Metalorganic Vapour Phase Epitaxy, Lecce, June 2003, N. Lovergine, A.M. Mancini, P. Prete eds.,U. of Lecce (2003).
  • [6] Silicon Epitaxy, D. Crippa, D.L. Rode, M. Masi eds., Semiconductors and Semimetals Series, Vol.72, Academic Press, San Diego (USA) (2001).
  • [7] Politecnico di Milano; maurizio.masi@polimi.it
  • [8] ST Microelectronics, Agrate; sara.acerboni@st.com
  • [9] Memc Electonic Materials; arinaldi@memc.it
  • [10] IMEM-CNR, Parma; www.imem.cnr.it
  • [11] U. Parma, Dip. Fisica; www.fis.unipr.it
  • [12] U. Lecce, Dip. Scienza dei Materiali; nico.lovergine@unile.it
  • [13] IMEM-CNR, Parma; franchi@imem.cnr.it;
  • [14] IMEM-CNR, Parma; pelosi@imem.cnr.it
  • [15] U. Parma, Dip. Fisica; romeo@fis.unipr.it
  • [16] U. Parma, Dip. Fisica; tarricone@fis.unipr.it
  • [17] TASC-INFM, Trieste; lucia.sorba@sci.area.trieste.it
  • [18] Ist. Galileo Ferraris, Torino; fiorillo@ien.it
  • [19] IMEM-CNR, Parma; pareti@imem.cnr.it
  • [20] IMEM-CNR, Parma; licci@imem.cnr.it
  • [21] Venezia Tecnologie, Venezia; gguadalupi@enitecnologie.eni.it
  • [22] IMEM-CNR, Parma; zanotti@imem.cnr.it
  • [23] U. Parma, Dip. Fisica; paorici@fis.unipr.it
  • [24] MARS Center, Napoli; carotenuto@marscenter.it
  • [25] U. Napoli "Federico II", Dip. Chimica; zagari@chemistry.unina.it
  • [26] U. Torino, Dip. Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche; aquilano@dsmp.unito.it
  • [27] U. Milano-Bicocca, Dip. Scienza dei Materiali; massimo.moret@mater.unimib.it
  • [28] U. Calabria, Dip. Ing. Chimica e dei Materiali; r.aiello@unical.it
  • [29] U. Roma "Tor Vergata", Dip. Scienze e Tecniol. Chimiche; terranova@roma2.infn.it
  • [30] U. Ferrara, Dip. Chimica; vcg@unife.it

Materials science

Materials science in Italy has a long tradition as an interdisciplinary area involving chemistry, physics and engineering research. The last 20 years has seen the creation of dedicated research centres, departments and consortiums, and the institution of university degrees in Materials Engineering and in Materials Science. This present report only mentions some Italian research groups most directly engaged in the development of crystallographic methodologies applied to materials science and technology, without trying to represent the vast category of users of crystallographic methods and related analytical techniques.

In Brescia[1] crystallographers are engaged in investigations of thin films and multilayers for optical, catalytic, and sensor applications; optimization of structural and innovative techniques to investigate metallurgical problems; and synthesis and structural, chemical, and nanomechanical characterisation of magnetic multilayers and patterned magnetic nanostructures.

Crystal structure and properties of natural zeolites and clay minerals; Quantitative phase analysis by the Rietveld method of oxide mixtures, clays and glass-ceramics and amorphous/crystalline fractions; high temperature/high pressure dynamic studies of zeolites by in-situ X-ray synchrotron light (diffraction and spectroscopy) and ab-initio computational methods are being pursued in Modena[2].

[Stress-texture map] Residual stress - texture θ-2θ/ψ map. TiN on steel substrate. (P. Scardi & Y.H.Dong, J. Mater. Res. 16 (2001) 233-242.)
In Trento[3] the following topics are being investigated: residual stress and texture analysis in thin films and coatings: new analytical methodologies based on laboratory and synchrotron radiation diffraction techniques; and microstructure and lattice defects in nanocrystalline and severely deformed materials by diffraction line profile analysis: new methods for ab-initio modelling of the whole powder diffraction pattern.
[Faujasite] Structure of faujasite, where the location of cation sites Na and Rb are shown. (G.L. Marra, A.N. Fitch, A. Zecchina, G. Ricchiardi, M. Salvalaggio, S. Bordiga, C. Lamberti, J. of Phys. Chem. B, 101(50), 1997, 10653-10660.)
In Bologna[4] research is focused on: isotactic polymers by WAXS/SAXS (polybutene-1, ethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride); evolution of microstructure and morphology as a function of catalysis conditions; and high molecular weight polyethylene polymerized in different conditions; correlation between structural and morphological parameters and high-modulus properties of the materials.

In Venice[5] the microstructure of materials is analysed by powder diffraction and small angle scattering: amorphous, partially crystalline and polycrystalline systems containing nanostructured phases are studied. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of small fractions of supported metal clusters with a size of a few nanometres are also investigated.

In Pavia[6] structure-properties relationships in polycrystalline doped materials are investigated.

The Research Centre in Novara[7] investigates: characterization by diffraction methods, using laboratory and synchrotron sources, of powders of heterogeneous catalysts used in oxidation reactions of H2O2 and application of full profile fitting procedures to study crystallographic aspects related to catalytic performance.

In Rome[8], time resolved in-situ structural and morphological investigations are performed on magnetic nanostructured and high Tc superconducting thin films, organic gas sensors, electrochemical and fuel cells and amorphous alloys undergoing phase transitions. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction and reflectometry are also used.

In Udine[9] research involves: diffraction study of polymer (poly-organolphosphazenes and polydimethylsiloxane) structures from polycrystalline samples and synthesis and crystallographic and microstructural characterization of oxide based ceramic materials.

At the Politecnico in Milano[10] the structure, morphology, crystallization and mesophases of synthetic organic polymers, oligomers and model compounds and the self assembly of new organic materials using specific intermolecular interactions are studied together with organic matrix nanocomposites with inorganic silicates.

At the U. in Milano[11] the following are investigated: physical properties and crystal structures of materials and industrial minerals at high temperature and pressure, with particular emphasis on thermal expansion and vibrational properties and chemical reactivity at crystal surfaces and kinetics of nucleation and crystal growth, studied by atomic force microscopy and in situ synchrotron radiation techniques.

At Milano Bicocca[12] materials science and theoretical methodologies are investigated. Neutron diffraction studies of ion mobility in inorganic ionic conductors as well as first-principle studies of phase transitions and physical properties of crystals are carried out.

In Cagliari[13] ionic coordination in water solutions and in glasses by X-ray diffraction and EXAFS and structural investigation of nanomaterials by XRD, TEM, HREM and EXAFS are researched.

Coordinated by Paolo Scardi (Paolo.Scardi@unitn.it)
  • [1] Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, U. Brescia (depero@ing.unibs.it)
  • [2] Dept. of Earth Sciences, U. Modena (gualtieri.alessandro@unimore.it)
  • [3] Dept. of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies, U. Trento (Paolo.Scardi@unitn.it)
  • [4] Dept. of Chemistry, U. Bologna (ferracin@ciam.unibo.it)
  • [5] Lab. of Science and Technology of Materials, U. "ca' Foscari" Venezia (benedett@unive.it)
  • [6] Dept. of Physical Chemistry, U. Pavia and IENI - CNR (vincenzo.massarotti@unipv.it)
  • [7] Polimeri Europa S.p.A, Centro Ricerche Novara, Ist. Guido Donegani (gianluigi.marra@polimerieuropa.com)
  • [8] Ist. di Struttura della Materia-CNR, Area della Ricerca, Tor Vergata, Roma (barbara.paci@ism.cnr.it)
  • [9] Dept. of Chemical Science and Technology, U. Udine (sergio.bruckner@uniud.it)
  • [10] Dept. of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano (valdo.meille@polimi.it)
  • [11] Dept of Earth Sciences, U. Milano (artioli@iummix.terra.unimi.it)
  • [12] Dept. of Materials Science, U. Milano Bicocca (catti@mater.unimib.it)
  • [13] Dept. of Chemistry, U. Cagliari (giaime@unica.it)

Biocrystallography

[Tyrosine modification] Tyrosine post-translational modification in a haemoglobin-like protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. Milani, P.Y. Savard, H. Ouellet, P. Ascenzi, M. Guertin, M.O. Bolognesi, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 2003, 5766-5771).
A survey based on the Italian scientists devoted to Biocrystallography provides a picture of a very productive community that dates back to the 1960s. After the pioneering start of L. Mazzarella in Napoli, a laboratory was established in the 1970s by M. Mammi in Padova, followed in the 1980s by A. Coda, the founder of the crystallographic school in Pavia.
[Monoamine oxidase] Structure of Human Monoamine Oxidase B linked to a membrane lipid double layer (C. Binda, P. Newton-Vinson, F. Hubalek, D. E. Edmondson, A. Mattevi, Nature Structural Biology, 9, 2002, 22-26.)
Nowadays there are 17 academic and 2 industrial, dynamic research groups located in: Roma[1], Milano[2], Napoli[3], Trieste[4], Siena-Firenze[5], Bari[6], Bologna[7], Genova[8], Pavia[9], Padova[10], and Verona[11]. The groups based in Pavia and in Padova deserve a special tribute for their pivotal role in training many Italian researchers who are now working as leading scientists in the field of structural biology in Italy and in various foreign institutions. The current focus of the laboratories is on proteins of medical and biotechnological interest.
[Acetylxylanesterase] Structure of Bacillus Pumilus AcetylXylan Esterase: a carbohydrate degrading enzyme (I. Krastanova, G. Degrassi, A. Cassetta, V. Venturi, D. Lamba, unpublished result).

Recent results include structural and functional studies on heme-proteins[1a,1b,3a,8]; DNA/PNA[3b], DNA-drugs and DNA-protein complexes[1c,4a]; collagen models[3a]; metalloenzymes involved in denitrification and radical protection[4b,5,8]; flavodoxins[2b], plant, viral and bacterial pathogenic proteins[1a,1d,2c,5,10]; carbohydrate processing enzymes[4b]; hydrophobic ligand-binding proteins[10,11]; metallo proteins[4a,5]; animal and vegetal lectins[11]; protein kinases[10]; proteins involved in NAD biosynthesis and iron homeostasis[9]; proteins involved in the coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways[3b,4b,8]; protein complexes involved in the regulation of mitosis[2a], in neuronal differentiation[2a], in immuno response[2c], in amyloidosis[8], and in muscle contraction[4b]; cell activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity[8]; target-based drug design proteins involved in various human diseases[1a,1c,1d,2d,3a,5], in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases[4b,9]; proteins involved in the biomineralization processes[7]. Research activities also include the growth of biological macromolecules crystals on engineered surfaces[7]; macromolecular crystallization under microgravity on the international space station[3a]; the use of soft X-rays as a phasing tool[4b]; direct methods in macromolecular crystallography[6].

Coordinated by Doriano Lamba (doriano.lamba@ic.cnr.it)
  • [1] a) Dip. di Scienze Biochimiche, U. Roma "La Sapienza" (maurizio.brunori@uniroma1.it); b) Ist. di Biologia e Patologia Molecolari, CNR (emilia.chiancone@uniroma1.it); c) Ist. di Cristallografia, CNR (giovanni.ughetto@ic.cnr.it); d) Merck Sharp&Dohme Italia S.p.A (stefania_dimarco@merck.com).
  • [2] a) Ist. Oncologico Europeo (andrea.musacchio@ieo.it); b) Ist. di Chimica Farmaceutica e Tossicologica, U. Milano (gabriella.bombieri@unimi.it); c) Biocrystallography Unit, Dibit Fondazione San Raffaele, Milano (degano.massimo@hsr.it); d) Pharmacia Italia SpA - Pfeizer Group Inc. (maria.flocco@pharmacia.com ).
  • [3] a) Dip. di Chimica, U. Napoli "Federico II" (mazzarella@chemistry.unina.it); b) Istit. di Biostrutture e Bioimmagini, CNR (pedone@chemistry.unina.it).
  • [4] a) Dip. di Scienze Chimiche & Centro di Eccellenza in Biocristallografia, U. Trieste (geremia@univ.trieste.it); b) Lab. di Biologia Strutturale, Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA & Ist. di Cristallografia, CNR (kristina.djinovic@elettra.trieste.it, doriano.lamba@ic.cnr.it).
  • [5] Dip. di Chimica, U. Siena (mangani@unisi.it), Dip. di Chimica, U. Firenze (marta.ferraroni@unifi.it).
  • [6] Ist. di Cristallografia, CNR (carmelo.giacovazzo@ic.cnr.it).
  • [7] Dip. di Chimica, U. Bologna (falini@ciam.unibo.it).
  • [8] Dip. di Fisica & Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research, U. Genova (bolognes@fisica.unige.it).
  • [9] Dip. di Genetica e Microbiologia, U. Pavia (mattevi@ipvgen.unipv.it).
  • [10] Dip. di Chimica Organica, U. Padova & Venetian Ist. of Molecular Medicine (giuseppe.zanotti@unipd.it).
  • [11] Lab. di Biocristallografia, Dip. Scientifico e Tecnologico, U. Verona (monaco@sci.univr.it).

Crystallographic methodologies

A number of Italian research groups are actively involved in the development of crystallographic methodologies, producing relevant results both in the field of structure determination and materials characterization and the investigation of new experimental techniques.

In Bari and Rome[1],[2] research in the last thirty years has focused on the theory and application of the phase problem in crystallography (in collaboration with researchers at the University of Perugia), producing significant scientific contributions at an international level. Their research goals are the development of innovative procedures for ab-initio crystal structure solution. The methods, developed so far, have been implemented in computer programs used by the crystallographic community all over the world: Sir97 (small molecules), the heir of Sir92 and CAOS (least squares refinement); EXPO (powder data); and Sir2002 (proteins). A very recent methodological activity concerns the crystallographic characterization of materials (quasicrystals, nanocrystals) and the quantitative analysis of multicomponent polycrystalline mixtures (program QUANTO).

In Como[3] and Milan[4] research interests are the structural determination by ab-initio powder diffraction methods of covalent inorganic and organometallic polymers and the study of structure-property relations in functional materials (transition-metal-based molecular magnets; electroluminescent materials, organometallic catalysts). Most recent activity has been focused on the determination of the local structure of disordered materials by total scattering analysis with application to amorphous or paracrystalline metalcoordination polymers.

[Unique crystal phase] The unique formation of a crystal phase containing cyclic oligomers and helical polymers of the same monomeric fragment as discovered by ab-initio XRPD studies on conventional lab data (N. Masciocchi, G.A. Ardizzoia, G. La Monica, A. Maspero, A. Sironi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., (1998), 37, 3366).
In Parma[5] and Bologna[6] Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques, in particular High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) and Electron Diffraction (ED), have been (and are still) used to support, in a strategic way. conventional diffraction techniques for the solution of complex structural problems. More recently, with the enlargement of the research group[7] a significant effort has been concentrated on ab-initio crystal structure solution using ED data. Three main research lines are being developed: 1) the experimental reduction of dynamical effects on ED intensities (implementation of a beam-precession technique on a Philips CM30T microscope), 2) the development of computer programs for quantitative treatment of ED data (QED program package), and 3) the characterization of strategies for direct methods application to ED data and synergetic use of HREM, ED, X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data for the structure determination of materials.

The group in Pisa[8] is interested in X-ray diffractometry methods. In particular: technological aspects, production of prototypes, standardization and metrological aspects, and new approaches to round robin designs.

In Pavia[9],[10], Milan[11] and Turin[12] scientific activity is directed at improving crystallographic procedures for the characterization of materials. Research on least-squares refinement, electron density reconstruction, leverage analysis and maximum entropy methods are in progress.

In Salerno[13] research is devoted to the study of stereoregular crystalline polymers from powder and/or fiber samples with particular attention to the solution and refinement of polymer structures (the program TRY has been developed) and to the indexing and extraction of integrated intesities from image plate detectors.

In Siena[14], the main research lines are: improvement of the Gandolfi technique to minimize the number of missing reflections and to obtain reliable 'powder' diffraction patterns from a single grain as small as 20μm diameter; the quantitative determination of the diffraction aspect in pseudosymmetric crystal structures.

[Urea] Gradient field of the electron density in the molecular plane of urea, in gas phase (left) and in the crystal (right), obtained using the TOPOND Code (C. Gatti, V.R. Saunders, C. Roetti, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 1994, 10686-10696).
In Milan[15], research is concerned with the development of software for 1) electron density distributions analysis, including topological and electrostatic properties (TOPOND, TOPXD and PAMoc), 2) lattice dynamics (VIBR) and 3) crystal structure and polymorphism's prediction (PROMET).

The group in Turin[16] is studying the electronic structure and properties of perfect and defective crystalline materials. They have developed ab initio methods that have been implemented in program CRYSTAL that is distributed to the scientific community for applications involving the study of physical, chemical, electric and magnetic properties of ionic, covalent and molecular crystals.

Coordinated by Angela Altomare (angela.altomare@ic.cnr.it)
  • [1] IC-CNR Sede di Bari, Sezione di Roma, carmelo.giacovazzo@ic.cnr.it
  • [2] Dip. Geomineralogico, Università di Bari, carmelo.giacovazzo@ic.cnr.it
  • [3] Dip. di Scienze Chimiche, Fisiche e Matematiche, Università dell'Insubria, Como, norberto.masciocchi@uninsubria.it
  • [4] Dip. di Chimica Strutturale e Stereochimica Inorganica, Università di Milano, angelo.sironi@istm.cnr.it
  • [5] Dip. di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica, Chimica Analitica e Chimica Fisica, Università di Parma, calestg@ipruniv.cce.unipr.it
  • [6] IMM-CNR, Sezione di Bologna, migliori@lamel.bo.cnr.it
  • [7] Dip. Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, mauro.gemmi@unimi.it
  • [8] Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, berti@dst.unipi.it
  • [9] IGG-CNR, Sezione di Pavia, merli@crystal.unipv.it
  • [10] Centro Grandi Strumenti, Università di Pavia, boiocchi@crystal.unipv.it
  • [11] Dip. di Scienze della Terra, Università di Milano, Alessandro.Pavese@unimi.it
  • [12] Dip. di Scienze Mineralogiche e Petrologiche, Università di Torino, mauro.prencipe@unito.it
  • [13] Dip. di Chimica, Università di Salerno, immirzi@unisa.it
  • [14] Dip di Scienze della Terra, Universita' di Siena, gregor@unisi.it
  • [15] ISTM-CNR, Milano, c.gatti@istm.cnr.it
  • [16] Dip. di Chimica, Università di Torino, roberto.orlando@unito.it

Elettra Synchrotron Radiation Source in Trieste

[CCD on diffraction beamline] CCD on the diffraction beamline, with He purging path for long wavelength data collection (photograph by K. Djinovic).
Elettra (www.elettra.trieste.it) is the Italian third generation synchrotron radiation laboratory. It is built around a medium energy electron storage ring operated at 2 and 2.4 GeV. The Elettra beamlines cover a wide energy range, from the far infrared to hard x-rays, with wavelengths between 0.6 mm and 0.3 Å.

The facility is operated by the Sincrotrone Trieste public no profit company, which built the accelerator system and some of the beamlines. Other beamlines are built in collaboration with external partners from various scientific institutions, both Italian and from other countries. Altogether, there are 15 operating beamlines and 4 under commissioning.

Elettra also hosts several support and complementary laboratories, which make it a multidisciplinary research and service centre, competitive at the international level. Researchers at Elettra are active in fields as diverse as genomics, pharmacology, biomedicine, catalysis and chemical processes, microelectronics and micromechanics.

[ELETTRA beamlines] Beamlines at ELETTRA.
The X-Ray Diffraction 1 beamline has been designed primarily for macromolecular crystallography. The light source is a multipole wiggler with a useful range from 4 to 25 keV. The optics consists of a double-crystal monochromator in non-dispersive configuration, followed by a toroidal focussing mirror with a horizontal acceptance of 2.8 mrad. The tunability of the wavelength provides the opportunity to use the MAD technique for solving the phase problem over a broad range of wavelengths, covering the absorption edges of all heavy atoms commonly used in protein crystallography. The multipole wiggler spectrum includes high photon flux at low energies, allowing optimisation of the anomalous signal at the Sulphur, Xenon and Calcium edges.

The high-flux Small Angle X-ray Scattering beamline is mainly intended for time-resolved studies on fast structural transitions in the sub-millisecond time region in solutions and partly ordered systems with a SAXS resolution of 1 to 140 nm in real-space. The SAXS-Beamline accepts 3 discrete energies, namely 5.4, 8 and 16 keV (0.077, 0.154, 0.23 nm). The beamline optics consists of a flat, asymmetric-cut double crystal monochromator and a double focusing toroidal mirror.

At present the X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) beamline is under commissioning.

Giorgio Paolucci, Riccardo Spagna and Augusto Pifferi

Other non-conventional sources

Italy participates in the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF: www.esrf.fr) in Grenoble. Most beamlines were constructed and are managed directly by ESRF, while additional Collaborating Research Group (CRG) beamlines were constructed by external groups. Italy constructed the GILDA beamline (www.lnf.infn.it/esperimenti/puls), which provides a high flux X-ray beam of mm2 size in the energy range 4-80 KeV. The installed instruments allow performing X-ray absorption spectroscopy in transmission, fluorescence, total yield and REFLEXAFS mode, in the temperature range 4-1000 K, as well as time resolved powder diffraction with a translating imaging plate detector. An ultra high vacuum chamber is available for X-ray absorption studies on surfaces.

Other Italian activities at ESRF involve the development of a high resolution X-ray spectrometer for inelastic scattering in the meV regime installed on the ID26 beamline, the development of an inelastic soft X-ray scattering apparatus installed on the ID08 beamline, and the construction of a general support laboratory.

Italian activities on the use of available instrumentation and development of new ones for neutron diffraction and spectroscopy are based at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France; www.ill.fr) and at ISIS (Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, UK; www.isis.rl.ac.uk).

At the ILL, Italian teams from INFM (Istit. Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia) are involved in two CRGs: IN13 and BRISP, two instruments dedicated to study diffraction by non-crystalline media.

At ISIS, in the eighties, the CNR funded a project for building PRISMA, an inverse geometry crystal analyser spectrometer and high resolution diffractometer. In the nineties TOSCA, an instrument for molecular spectroscopy was built in collaboration with UK groups.

Several Italian groups have performed experiments on diffraction instruments at ISIS (SXD, POLARIS, HRPD, GEM) and ILL (D19, D1, D2) obtaining important structural results in the fields of chemical crystallography, materials science, mineralogy and polymer chemistry where the peculiar advantages of neutrons over X-rays as structural probe are outstanding.

Settimio Mobilio and Antonio Deriu

AIC-SILS Meeting

Trieste, July 21-25, 2003

[AIC logo][SILS logo] The annual meetings of the Italian Crystallographic Association (AIC) and of the Italian Synchrotron Light Society (SILS) were held jointly in Trieste in July, 2003, in the beautiful area of Miramare by the International Centre of Theoretical Physics. More than 170 people from different Italian universities and research centres attended the conference. The goal of the joint meeting was to encourage interaction between two communities that have strong scientific common interests. The crystallographic community, which usually uses laboratory sources, had the oportunity to be informed of recent progresses in modern synchrotron radiation facilities and instruments. On the other hand synchrotron radiation scientists received an overview of many scientific problems of interest today in the structural characterization of different classes of materials, from amorphous materials to proteins.

The conference was structured in four common symposia, three parallel microsymposia, and a common poster section. In addition, a common section was dedicated to the presentation of the ESRF and ELETTRA Facilities. The common microsymposia were dedicated to "Diffraction in Materials Science", to "Progress of Structural Biology promoted by Synchrotron Sources", to "Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Investigations" and "Archeometry". The parallel microsymposia were organized separately by the two societies. AIC organized microsymposia on "Structural Crystallography" and "Experiments, Modeling and Theories on Crystal Growth Mechanisms at the Atomic- and Nano-scale level"; the SILS organized a microsymposium on "Studies with Synchrotron Radiation".

"Diffraction in Materials Science" aimed at presenting recent and innovative applications of synchrotron and laboratory based diffraction techniques in the structural and physical characterization of inorganic materials.

"Progress of Structural Biology promoted by Synchrotron Sources", was opened by J. Nyborg whose plenary lecture was focussed on the knowledge gained on the various elongation factors and how they are related to protein biosynthesis taking place on the ribosome. All the presentations stressed the increasing complexity of the biological systems studied in Italy and a common feature of all the experimental works was the utilization of European sources.

"Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Investigations" provided an overview of Synchrotron Radiation spectroscopic methods and their use in structural and morphological studies of different systems, from biological systems to semiconductor and nanostructures, focusing on the state of the art achieved in the different cases.

"Archeometry" was concerned with structural studies of archaeological materials by synchrotron radiation; it was shown how a microscopic comprehension of the structure favours the understanding of the origin of archaeological finds, of the treatments experienced during their production and of the transformations experienced during their ageing. For the first time in Italy, recent results obtained by X-ray methods in this field were illustrated in order to stimulate the use of these probes by archaeologists, cultural heritage operators and restorers.

The microsymposium "Structural Crystallography" was devoted to results and advances in structural crystallography. The plenary lecture by A. Fitch dealt with the use of synchrotron radiation in crystal structure solution and illustrated the instrumentation available for high-resolution powder diffraction measurements and different approaches to solve structures from synchrotron data. The following contributions were devoted to new trends in chemistry, frontier research on polymers and on incommensurate crystals. Two contributions were devoted to methodological research.

[AIC prize winner 2003] The 2003 AIC Prize winner with the organizers of the meeting in Trieste.
"Experiments, Modelling and Theories on Crystal Growth Mechanisms at the Atomic- and Nano-scale" focused on both experimental and theoretical results, and on fundamental mechanisms driving the growth of crystals at the microscopic (i.e., atomic and nano-scale) level. The Plenary lecture on "Probing Epitaxial Growth on a Microscopic Scale", was given by W. Richter. Other contributions were on the use of real-time small-angle synchrotron X-ray scattering, on the in-situ and ex-situ AFM investigations of crystal growth at both nano- and micron-scale, on advanced molecular dynamics simulation of growth by self-assembling of constituent atoms/molecules and on the application of density functional theory (DFT) to crystal growth chemistry.

In "Studies with Synchrotron Radiation" the contributions outlined recent achievements in the characterization of ordered and disordered materials by high energy and/or space resolved synchrotron radiation photoemission and X-ray microdiffraction experiments.

According to their tradition, both Societies awarded young researchers with special prizes. AIC gave the award to Marco Milanesio of the U. of Piemonte Orientale, who presented a review lecture on his scientific work on experimental and theoretical structural chemistry. SILS awarded four young scientists working in different fields. Namely R. Carboni from Bologna working in the characterization of semiconductor nanostructures, A. Sanson from Trento working on the dynamical properties of oxides, M. Merlini from Milano, working on heterogeneous catalytic systems for methane combustion and L. Di Costanzo from Trieste, working on protein crystallography.

The smooth and collaborative atmosphere present at the meeting favored deep and extensive discussions between the two communities and the birth of new scientific collaborations can be foreseen.

Settimio Mobilio and Gilberto Vlaic

The interdisciplinary crystallographic teaching activity in Erice, Italy[EMFCSC logo]

A. Zichichi, a nuclear physicist, founded the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture (nowadays E. Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture). He defined "International Schools" as any scientific field whose leaders would be willing to gather at the top of a mountain to review scientific progress in a restricted, stimulating atmosphere. He saw it as an appropriate setting for teaching and promoting generations of young scientists without ideological, political or racial barriers. The International School of Crystallography (ISCoC) was officially born in 1972 following a suggestion by Michael Woolfson during the 1972 Kyoto IUCr Congress. He personally inspected the site along with Herbert Hauptman, Gabriel Germain, Georges Tsoucaris and Lodovico Riva di Sanseverino. Michael was also the scientific director of the very first Course on Direct Methods in 1974. Since then the ISCoC has been running courses every year (except 1979) on various crystallographic topics. Some of them became the foundation for repeated meetings with an approximate periodicity of six years to mark the most relevant contributions and exciting progress. The most popular titles have been: Direct Methods, Molecular Biology, Drug Design, Electron Diffraction, Material Science and Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry.

After a short period of stimulating directorship by Nobel laureate Dorothy Hodgkin, she passed the torch to Tom L. Blundell, FRS, Birkbeck College, now at Cambridge U., UK. Tom is responsible for the general planning of activities (mainly teaching courses) at the ISCoC and nominates the scientific director(s), who are dynamic leaders in the particular topic covered in each course. The director of the course is responsible for inviting lecturers and for setting up an attractive and stimulating scientific programme. The local organising staff consists of an executive secretary and a treasurer (who sign this text) and the IT expert, John J. Irwin, now at the UCSF, USA.

A typical Course in Erice consists of morning lectures, and afternoon tutorials run with the help of the most modern computing facilities. Poster sessions, round table discussions and sessions devoted to "short talks on hot topics" are always included in the programme. In recent years efforts have been made by the organizers to run a "virtual course" simultaneously with the traditional one. Thanks to the great work of the IT expert scientists from everywhere in the world can now follow the courses in real time and can even interact directly with the audience in Erice during the sessions.

Courses in Erice have a strong interdisciplinary character and are attended by specialists from various fields. The inimitable Erice environment and the efforts by the organizers have often led to closer scientific contacts and future collaborative research projects. Erice web page: www.crystalerice.org

Paola Spadon and Lodovico Riva di Sanseverino

Davide L. M. Viterbo

[Davide Viterbo]
Davide L. M. Viterbo was born in Torino in 1939 and studied Chemistry at the University of Torino, where he joined the Physical Chemistry group and initiated his academic and scientific carreer.

He is now full professor of Physical Chemistry at the Faculty of Natural Sciences of the University of Piemonte Orientale "A. Avogadro" (Alessandria).

His research interests have been on the methodologies of structural analysis by diffraction methods, with particular emphasis on the so called "Direct Methods" for the solution of the phase problem. He spent three years in the Physics Dept. of the University of York (UK), working in this field with Prof. M. M. Woolfson and was also involved in research projects with Dr. H. Hauptman and Prof. C. Giacovazzo.

D. Viterbo has also carried out the structural investigation of several classes of organic compounds of bio-pharmacological interest (furoxans, azoxyderivatives, ranitidine analogues, sesquiterpenoids, taxane derivatives, squalenes, etc).

In the recent years he has also undertaken the analysis of the geometric and physico-chemical properties of molecular crystals, with particular attention to weak intermolecular interactions, by comparing the results of experimental charge density studies from accurate diffraction data, collected at low temperature, with those from ab-initio quantomechanical calculations.

In the last few years he has devoted his attention to the structural characterization of zeolite-like systems by diffraction techniques both on polycrystalline samples and on single crystals, taking advantage also of the powerful features of synchrotron radiation.

More recently he entered the fascinating world of siliceous spicules from marine sponges in order to elucidate their structural arrangement and to throw some light on the mechanisms of the biosilicification process.

D. Viterbo has been invited as lecturer at a number of International and National Schools. He is author of 130 publications and of a Chapter of the book "Fundamentals of Crystallography" (edited by C. Giacovazzo, Oxford U. Press, 2002) and he has been chairman of the "Commission for Crystallographic Computing" of the International Union of Crystallography in the period 1993-1996. He was elected chairman of the Italian Crystallographic Association in the triennium 1997-1999 and member of the executive committee of the European Crystallographic Association in the period 2000-2003. Presently he is member of the executive committee of the International Union of Crystallography.

This extract from 50 Years of X-ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald and published in 1962, recounts the early development of crystallography in this region.

Italy

In spite of the great tradition in mineralogy and crystallography which in Italy goes back to the 17th century, the first X-ray work came from the chemical institute of the Polytechnic in Milan and was directed to problems of analytical and physical chemistry. A very viable school, which still persists, was created here in 1924 by G. Bruni, G. R. Levi and G. Natta with many co-workers. Their investigation of oxides, hydroxides, fluorides, carbonates, etc. was based on powder diagrams, the technique of which G. R. Levi had been studying with Debye and Scherrer in ZÜrich. In the course of time, single-crystal methods were adopted, and now the use of Weissenberg and precession cameras, optical and machine summation leads to single-crystal work of high quality and chemical significance.

Among the mineralogists, E. Onorato was the first to enter the field (1927) by his determination of the space group of gypsum from Laue diagrams during his studies with Rinne-Schiebold in Leipzig. In the same laboratory V. Montoro received his training; he later devoted most of his work to analyses of metallurgical interest.

The lack of equipment which was largely responsible for the relatively small amount of work coming from Italy in the period between the wars was overcome in the last decade; the number of well equipped laboratories has doubled and a large group of young and well trained X-ray crystallographers is now at work in academic, industrial and governmental laboratories on chemical as well as physical and mineralogical problems. Fluorescence analysis and electron diffraction are also being used.


First published for the International Union of Crystallography 1962 by N.V.A. Oosthoek's Uitgeversmaatschappij, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Digitised 1999 for the IUCr XVIII Congress, Glasgow, Scotland
© 1962, 1999 International Union of Crystallography

Photographic record of crystallographic activities in Italy

The complete IUCr photographic archive includes thousands of photographs. Here we include a collection illustrating activities in this country. This image is selected randomly from the galleries listed below (IUCr Congress and General Assembly, 2005).
Yuji Ohashi.