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[ddlm-group] UTF-8 versus extended ASCII

  • To: Group finalising DDLm and associated dictionaries <ddlm-group@iucr.org>
  • Subject: [ddlm-group] UTF-8 versus extended ASCII
  • From: Joe Krahn <krahn@niehs.nih.gov>
  • Date: Fri, 06 Nov 2009 10:31:52 -0500
Traditionally, non-ASCII characters are encoded as "extended" ASCII, 
using character codes 128-255. UTF-8 gained broad support because it 
still fits this design, even though it encodes many more non-ASCII 

My suggestion is to define the low-level STAR2/CIF2 syntax as allowing 
characters 128-255, but not specifically declaring UTF-8 encoding. It is 
almost the same, but has a few potential advantages.

First, it becomes a bit more sensible for the DDL to declare where UTF-8 
is allowed, rather than excluding it from all of the other strings. I 
assume that UTF-8 is intended mainly for publication-oriented formatted 
text, but the numerous label strings will remain ASCII. If not, it still 
follows the original STAR/CIF idea where the exact details of string 
encoding is left to the DDL.

Second, generic 8-bit extended ASCII would make it easier to efficiently 
encode binary data, with 7-bits of raw binary data per byte. It has half 
the overhead of Base64, and does not require mapping characters in a 
look-up table. It is not as efficient as embedding binary in UCS-2, but 
it also does not have the UCS-2 overhead for all of the non-binary CIF 

The advantage of UCS-2 is that they easily fit into short fixed-length 
strings, and are much more efficient at manipulating sub-strings. That 
is why Java and the MS-Windows kernel use UCS-2. UTF-8 is more efficient 
for storage, which is one reason MS-Windows does not default to UCS-2 
for text files. Therefore, in my opinion, UTF-8 is better suited to an 
archival format. However, UCS-2 might really be a better choice for 
mostly-binary CIF files. It would be nice for UCS-2 CIF beginning with 
the BOM encoding mark to also be a valid CIF alternative, instead of 
just a hacked pseudo-CIF.

If CIF still wants to go with global UTF-8 encoding, maybe the low-level 
STAR syntax can be updated to define a more generic encoding. Herbert 
mentioned that using "not exactly CIF" often is useful to get work done, 
when the strict CIF format gets in the way. It would be nice if these 
sorts of files could at least stick to STAR syntax to avoid running into 

OTOH, I am much more picky about proper syntax standards than most 
people. Maybe this group is happy to declare standard CIF as UTF-8, and 
leave any alternative forms as a customised, non-standard CIF.

Joe Krahn
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