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Re: [ddlm-group] options/text vs binary/end-of-line. .. .

Hi Herbert, thanks for the interesting link.  It was written over 10
years ago, and it eventually led me to something which I would
consider a more balanced discussion of Unicode in the Japanese
context:

http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20090627072117/http://www.jbrowse.com/text/unij.html

I can agree that Unicode is not the holy grail, however I would assert
that for our purposes it is more than sufficient.  It *is* in
widespread use in Japan (see that document, which appears to be of
2003 vintage) due to the widespread penetration of Windows systems.

I think it is instructive to contemplate the Biblical story of the
Tower of Babel.  One essential insight being that differences in
communication standards destroy the ability to work together.

I agree that CIF1 is not officially restricted to ASCII, as I have
acknowledged several times (I would be interested in learning the
history of the thinking behind those paragraphs that you cite, by the
way).  However, backing up your dramatic language about drastic and
disruptive change from CIF1 practice requires more than a citation
from the standard.  I repeat my call for some examples of real-world
CIF1 practice that involves non-ASCII transfer and storage of CIF
files, so we can assess how 'disruptive' mandating the encoding would
be.  As far as I can tell, if the CIF1 standard *had* mandated ASCII,
the CIF world would look exactly the same.

We are not forcing the world to consolidate on UTF8.  We are picking a
single encoding that we believe everyone likely to use CIF will be
able to use to read and write files for the forseeable future.  We are
not telling anybody which word processor to use (unlike a lot of
scientific journals).

I'm not sure how significant for the present discussion RasMol's truly
impressive message catalog is.  RasMol is an application that has to
conform to the output environment of the shell it is running in: CIF2
+ UTF8 would be a standard that relies upon the support for an
encoding in an OS.  Perhaps you could make the link more explicitly?

On Wed, Jun 23, 2010 at 10:48 AM, Herbert J. Bernstein
<yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
> Dear James,
>
>   Before we discuss general history, first I refer you to the explicit
> wording of the following note in the CIF 1.1 syntax specification:
>
> "23. The reference to the ASCII character set is specifically to
> identify characters in an established and widely available standard.
> It is understood that CIFs may be constructed and maintained on
> computer platforms that implement other character-set encodings.
> However, for maximum portability only the characters identified in
> the section above may be used. Other printable characters, even if
> available in an accessible character set such as Unicode, must be
> indicated by some encoding mechanism using only the permitted
> characters. At this revision, only the encoding convention detailed
> in paragraphs 30-37 of the document Common semantic features is
> recognised for this purpose."
>
> CIF1 is most certainly _not_ specified to be in ASCII encoding.  You
> are proposing a drastic and very disruptive change from CIF1 practice
> that will hinder, not help, in achieving wider use of CIF.
>
>   Noe to really answer your question:
>
>   For the past 10 years the most popular encodings have certainly been
> the code pages under windows, then the rather strange  Mac OS encodings,
> and then, coming on strong the code pages and more recently unicode
> encodings under unix.  There is a good summary of this mess at
>
>   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_encoding
>
> A more detailed account is available at
>
>   http://tronweb.super-nova.co.jp/characcodehist.html
>
> It is a wonderful testimonial to how smoothly the transitions among
> current encodings have worked that most people are not even aware
> of what encodings are in use.  I have to deal with them because I
> support RasMol on multiple platforms for multiple languages.  When
> you have to make message catalogs in English, French, Italian, Spanish,
> Bulgarian, Russian, Chinese and Japanese and put the messages out
> under Mac OS, Mac OS X, MS Windows and Unix, you start to appreciate
> what a complex mess it all is.
>
>   Nobody has managed to impose order on this.  As noted by the second
> web page site above,
>
> "So how are things going to turn out in the future? That's hard to
> predict, but unless the American computer vendors with or without the
> help of the U.S. government try to force Unicode on the rest of the
> world in some sort of "market opening campaign," the most likely
> outcome is that there will be a battle between competing standards
> that will eventually be decided on the basis of what computer users,
> not computer vendors, prefer. The commercially available BTRON-based
> operating system currently runs on the same hardware as Unicode-based
> Windows NT, so all users will have to do in Japan is switch from one
> side of a hard disk partition to the other to select the system of
> their choice. Moreover, the Internet communication protocols, as
> noted above, allow for multiple character sets and encoding methods
> to be used, so this battle between competing multilingual character
> code sets and encoding systems will have little effect on data
> networks.
>
> "And thus one can predict with certainty that for the first time in a
> long time, personal computer users are really going to have a choice!"
>
> We can encourage UTF-8.  We can hope for the world to consolidate on
> UTF-8, but I really don't think we can force the issue.
>
>   Regards,
>     Herbert
>
>
>
> At 9:58 AM +1000 6/23/10, James Hester wrote:
>>Herbert writes in response to David:
>>
>>On Wed, Jun 23, 2010 at 12:30 AM, Herbert J. Bernstein
>><yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
>>>  Dear Colleagues,
>>>
>>>  David wrote:
>>>
>>>  "The great virtue of CIF1 is that I can read it and edit it in wordpad and
>>>  what it writes out is a valid ASDII [sic] cif that I can read into any
>>>  program that allows for a cif input.  How does this work when the world (and
>>  > CIF2) supports multiple encodings?"
>>>
>>>  This is a misunderstanding of both the current and future handling of
>>>  CIF.
>>>
>>>  Right now CIF _is_ handled with multiple encodings.  That is why the
>>>  process of working with it is essentially painless for a wide range
>>>  of computers with very, very different encodings used around the
>>>  world.  Most systems, when properly informed that they ware working
>>>  with text and not binary do a very nice job when talking to other
>>>  systems of matching up encodings for a text file transfer.
>>
>>Herbert, please give some concrete examples of what this work is that
>>currently happens with CIF1 in multiple encodings, and what these
>>multiple encodings are that are so painlessly interconverted, so that
>>we can assess how valid this point is.  And why are CIF1 systems so
>>clever, when so many others have had to suffer multiple encoding pain?
>>
>>>  James' proposal would remove that painless feature and, by insisting on
>>>  a single encoding, suddenly make users who could provide a workable
>>>  CIF2 file doing very much what they have always done -- which is to
>>>  edit with whatever tools they currently use -- make them do major
>>>  disruptive upgrades they may not be ready for and sometimes cannot
>>>  afford, all for no practical reason.
>>
>>There is absolutely nothing disruptive about moving from ASCII to
>>UTF8, given that UTF8 is a proper superset of ASCII.  While you
>>maintain that not all CIF1 is ASCII, and indeed the CIF1 standard does
>>not (unfortunately, in my opinion) mandate ASCII, I have strong doubts
>>that significant numbers of CIF users rely on a non-ASCII encoding for
>>working with CIFs, hence my request for some examples.  Perhaps the
>>IUCr could provide some numbers on how many non-ASCII files they
>>receive?
>>
>>>
>>>  It is only by allowing some reasonable range of multiple encoding for CIF2
>>>  as we do for CIF1 that we can avoid such confusion and pointless expense.
>>
>>My viewpoint is precisely opposite: it is only by mandating a single
>>encoding that we can avoid confusion and pointless expense.
>>Fortunately, for CIF1 ASCII was the defacto if not the dejure standard
>>encoding, pending examples from Herbert that show otherwise.
>>
>>>  Regards,
>>>   Herbert
>>>  =====================================================
>>>   Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>>  >   Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>>>         Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>>>
>>>                  +1-631-244-3035
>>>                  yaya@dowling.edu
>>>  =====================================================
>>>
>>>  On Tue, 22 Jun 2010, David Brown wrote:
>>>
>>>>  I find both Herbert and James' arguments equally appealling and
>>>>  convincing,
>>>>  and therefore the choice has to be based on philosophy.  If many encodings
>>>>  are allowed, how do I know when I download a CIF whether I can read it in
>>>>  my
>>>>  favorite Word Perfect editor?  Would it require a different .cif extension
>>>>  on the filename for each different encoding (e.g., .cifdoc or cifwpd, or
>>>>  is
>>>>  there something at the head of the file (a BOM?) that my editor would
>>>>  instantly recognize and take care of?  Do I have to try reading with all
>>>>  my
>>>>  editors to find one that can accept the CIF or does the CIF come with an
>>>>  ASCII readme file to tell me how to read it?  The great virtue of CIF1 is
>>>>  that I can read it and edit it in wordpad and what it writes out is a
>>>>  valid
>>>>  ASDII cif that I can read into any program that allows for a cif input.
>>>>  How
>>>>  does this work when the world (and CIF2) supports multiple encodings?
>>>>  Because I have not received any reassurance that I would be able to read
>>>>  any
>>>>  CIF2 into any of my graphics etc. programs, I favour James' more cautious
>>>>  and conservative approach.  Later when the world has settled on a single
>>>>  encoding, we could extend CIF2 to include that one as well.  Or should we
>>>>  just stay with ASCII until the world has decided which way it wants to
>>>>  go?
>>>>  It has served us well, if not always elegantly.
>>>>
>>>>  David
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>  James Hester wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  Herbert, it looks like neither of us is really addressing the others'
>>>>  concerns, so I'd like to solicit contributions from other
>>  >> participants, preferably on the thread I've created for that purpose.
>>>>  Meanwhile, regarding your email:
>>>>
>>>>  Choosing one encoding does not imply disrepect, any more than
>>>>  accepting only English manuscripts shows disrespect, or being unable
>>>>  to read/write publications in Japanese, Chinese, Korean or Russian
>>>>  shows disrespect.  Rather, information is most effectively
>>>>  disseminated when a single common language is chosen.  Likewise,
>>>>  choosing a single encoding is the most effective way to ensure that
>>>>  the text file contents are not lost.  CIF is an information transfer
>>>>  and archiving protocol, so this is a worthy goal.
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 12:56 PM, Herbert J. Bernstein
>>>>  <yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  I am most seriously advocating that we respect our Japanese, Chinese,
>>>>  Korean
>>>>  and Russian colleagues and accord appropriate respect to
>>>>  their way of doing science.  Those users and all crystalographers
>>>>  who happen to still be using Windows 98, Windows 2000 and windows
>>>>  XP and older unixes on which it is easier to work with UTF-16 (and EUC-CN
>>>>  and Shift-JIS) than with UTF-8 are the people I have in mind.
>>>>
>>>>  In what sense is it 'easier' to work with UTF-16?  Does the editing
>>>>  software not have a 'UTF8' output option, but does have a 'UTF16'
>>>>  output option?  What will these users do when they receive a UTF8
>>>>  encoded CIF?
>>>>
>>>>  In practice, we are both proposing that CIF2 be defined in terms of
>>>>  a stream on unicode code points as text, but once you do that,
>>>>  thereby giving our Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean colleagues
>>>>  the same support in CIF that they have in XML, so that they are
>>>>  highly likely to start working with CIF in their native languages,
>>>>  I just want to encourage them to use whatever text editing tools
>>>>  they are comfortable with, and show respect for the practices
>>>>  they are used to.
>>>>
>>>>  If we all respect everyone's else's typical practice, and as a
>>>>  consequence try to include that practice in our standard, then our
>>>>  standards risk becoming complete spaghetti and useless. Where would we
>>>>  be if, instead of producing Unicode, standards bodies had 'respected'
>>>>  all the alternative encodings that used to be around?  Back in
>>  >> encoding hell, still.  What's more, there is nothing sacred about
>>>>  typical practice, and users themselves may not be satisifed with their
>>>>  typical practice.
>>>>
>>>>  I would suggest you watch a native Chinese speaker working with
>>>>  English and Chinese text in a Chinese text editor for a while,
>>>>  and you may realize that trying to force somebody into the
>>>>  transition from EUC-CN to UTF-8 before they are ready, and,
>>>>  more importantly before more UTF-8-aware Chinese text editors
>>>>  are ready is not a very good idea.
>>>>
>>>>  Chinese text editors that are UTF8 aware are widely available.  I
>>>>  believe NJStar is a popular one.  Perhaps you could give a few
>>>>  examples of popular Chinese text editors that do not allow UTF8 input
>>>>  or output?
>>>>
>>>>  It is a matter of respect.
>>>>
>>>>  Respect has very little to do with it.  It is a matter of reliable
>>>>  information transfer and archiving.
>>>>
>>>>  all the best,
>>>>  James.
>>>>
>>>>  Regards,
>>>>   Herbert
>>>>
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>   Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>>>>    Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>>>>         Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>>>>
>>>>                  +1-631-244-3035
>>>>                  yaya@dowling.edu
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, 22 Jun 2010, James Hester wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  Dear Herbert: my question is simple, and not answered by that link:
>>>>  what group of users or programmers *will not* be able to work with a
>>>>  UTF8 file?  That is what matters.
>>>>
>>>>  And yes, I am very much in favour of saying to people that their UTF16
>>>>  encoded 'CIF2' file is most definitely not a CIF2 file.  That way,
>>>>  nobody is confused when this UTF16 'CIF2' file pops up in some archive
>>>>  somewhere.  And are you seriously advocating allowing KOI and JIS
>>>>  encoded files to be considered legitimate CIF2 files??
>>  >>
>>>>  In any case, talk about JIS and Cyrillic encodings is a red herring.
>>>>  Those wishing to insert Japanese or Russian text have had no option at
>>>>  all in the CIF world, yet you make it sound as if they have been able
>>>>  to use their favourite editor to produce CIFs, until we restricted
>>>>  them to UTF8.  Quite the opposite: we are now cautiously expanding
>>>>  their range of options, and perhaps they can now use their favourite
>>>>  editor.
>>>>
>>>>  I am proposing one clearly-defined method of communicating text in
>>>>  Japanese or Russian (or anything else).  We have the opportunity to
>>>>  avoid the indescribably annoying pitfalls of multiple possible
>>>>  encodings that users of JIS and Cyrillic have had to endure (and I
>>>>  have had plenty of occasions to feel the pain first-hand), and I
>>>>  frankly don't understand why anybody would want to recreate that
>>>>  situation.
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 11:38 AM, Herbert J. Bernstein
>>>>  <yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  Now thate we are in agreement about allowing users to work with text as
>>>>  text
>>>>  using system-dependent editors and API's please review the surrent state
>>>>  of
>>>>  support for UTF-8 versus UCS-2 and UTF-16, e.g. at
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UTF-16/UCS-2#Use_in_major_operating_systems_and
>>>>  _environments
>>>>
>>>>  You will see that we are a few years premature in trying to be UTF-8
>>>>  purists
>>>>  instead of being reasonably friendly to the unicode 16-bot encodings as
>>>>  well.  Indeed, we are a bit premature in insisting on Unicode.  EUC-CN
>>>>  and
>>>>  SHIFT-JIS are still very heavily used, as are some non-Unicode Cyrillic
>>>>  systems.  Things are far enough along in terms of unicode support that we
>>>>  can get away with specifying the file in terms of unicode code-points,
>>>>  but
>>>>  the reality is that CIF users are gong to use multiple encodings,
>>>>  including
>>>>  non-unicode encodings for at least the next several years. That does not
>>>>  mean the IUCr journals will have to accept non-UTF-8 encodings -- that
>>>>  can
>>>>  now be handled by external filters on almost all systems, but it is
>>>>  unwise
>>>>  to tell people they are doing something illegitimate by using heir
>>>>  favorite
>>>>  text editor or application to actually produce the file, when it really
>>  >> is a
>>>>  perfectly valid CIF, just in a different encoding.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>  If we are to be a text-based system, then you really need to put the
>>>>  multiple-encoding wording back into my paragraph, or we will be
>>>>  alienating a
>>>>  signficant fraction of CIF users for no good reason.
>>>>
>>>>  If we are flexible now and encourage UTF-8 use, rather than trying to
>>>>  enforce UTF-8 use, I expect we will avoid a current political and
>>>>  practical
>>>>  problem and be wel-positioned over the next decade as UTF-8 use becomes
>>>>  more
>>>>  widely accepted.
>>>>
>>>>  Please put the multiple encoding wording back in.  We need it.
>>>>
>>>>  Regards,
>>>>   Herbert
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>   Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>>>>    Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>>>>         Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>>>>
>>>>                  +1-631-244-3035
>>>>                  yaya@dowling.edu
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, 22 Jun 2010, James Hester wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  I agree with your paragraph.  I'm ready for your next step...
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 10:23 AM, Herbert J. Bernstein
>>>>  <yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  OK, so we are at least in agreement with the concept of a text file.
>>>>  Now let's deal with what that means to users:
>>>>
>>>>  I means that they can edit a file on some reasonable range of
>>>>  machines with a text editor, read it with the text-reading
>>>>  libraries for some reasonable range of programming languages
>>>>  on some reasonable range of machine, and write it with
>>>>  text editors and the text-writing libraries of programming
>>>>  languages on some reaonable range of machines and they
>>>>  have some reaonable way to print the file on piece of paper
>>>>  and read it seeing the essential content of the file.
>>>>
>>>>  Do we all agree to those implcations of saying we are dealing
>>  >> with a text file?
>>>>
>>>>  (Yes, this is a trick question -- to find out if we have a
>>>>  text interchange format or if we are just dealing with
>>>>  a binary file under false colors).
>>>>
>>>>  Regards,
>>>>   Herbert
>>>>
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>   Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>>>>    Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>>>>         Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>>>>
>>>>                  +1-631-244-3035
>>>>                  yaya@dowling.edu
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, 22 Jun 2010, James Hester wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  As Simon says, to agree to this wording requires agreeing to multiple
>>>>  encodings.  We have not agreed to that yet.  I would however agree to
>>>>  the following wording, which has removed any reference to encoding,
>>>>  and inserted John's suggestion for EOL treatment.
>>>>
>>>>  "CIF2 is a specification for the interchange of text files.This
>>>>  document is therefore written
>>>>  in terms of a sequence of Unicode code points.  Particular care must
>>>>  be taken with treatment of newline in text files. This document will
>>>>  only refer to <0x000A> as a line terminator, as CIF2 processors are
>>>>  required to map <0x000D>, <0x000A> and <0x000D><0x000A> to this
>>>>  character.
>>>>
>>>>  To ensure compatibility with older Fortran text processing software,
>>>>  lines in CIF2 files should be restricted to no more than 2048
>>>>  code points in length, not including the line terminator itself."
>>>>
>>>>  On Tue, Jun 22, 2010 at 3:44 AM, Herbert J. Bernstein
>>>>  <yaya@bernstein-plus-sons.com> wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  Dear Colleagues,
>>>>
>>>>    The IUCr is an international organization.  Is it really
>>>>  politically
>>>>  wise to insist that CIF2 tags be restricted to unaccented roman
>>>>  letters?
>>>>
>>>>    Before we go much further, may we please have a vote on explicitly
>>>>  changing CIF2 from the current draft wording that it is a binary
>>>>  format to the wording I suggested making it a text format.  Most of
>>>>  the
>>>>  rest of the issues we are dealing with hinge on that basic decision.
>>>>
>>>>    The wording I proposed was:
>>>>
>>>>  "CIF2 is a specification for the interchange of text files.  Text
>>>>  files
>>>>  have many possible system dependent represenations and encodings.  To
>>  >> ensure clarity in the specification of CIF2, this document is written
>>>>  in terms of a sequence of unicode code points, and all fully
>>>>  compliant
>>>>  CIF2 processing systems should, at a minimum be able to process
>>>>  text files as unicode code points represented in UTF-8, subject to
>>>>  the
>>>>  XML-based restrictions below.  This approach is not meant to prevent
>>>>  people from preparing valid CIF2 files with non-UTF-8-based text
>>>>  editors, but, if a non-UTF-8 file format is produced, it is important
>>>>  to clearly specify the intended mapping to UTF-8.  This is
>>>>  particularly
>>>>  important in dealing with end-of-line indicators (see
>>>>  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline).  When handling CIF2 files
>>>>  produced under MS windows, CR-LF sequences should be accepted as
>>>>  an alternative to LF, and when handling CIF2 files produced under
>>>>  Mac OS, CR should be accepted as an alternative to LF.  This document
>>>>  will only refer to LF as a line terminator and will assume that some
>>>>  appropriate system-dependent text processing system will handle
>>>>  the necessary conversion.
>>>>
>>>>  To ensure compatibility with older Fortran text processing software,
>>>>  lines in CIF2 files should be restricted to no more than 2048
>>>>  code points in length, not including the line temrinator itself.
>>>>  Not that the UTF-8 encoding of such a line may well be much longer."
>>>>
>>>>  If anybody objects to some specific wording in this text, let us
>>>>  settle on revised wording.  We need to get this basic issue
>>>>  clarified in writing or we will be going in circles forever.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>    Regards,
>>>>      Herbert
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>  At 11:30 AM -0500 6/21/10, Bollinger, John C wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  On Monday, June 21, 2010 1:13 AM, James Hester wrote:
>>>>
>>>>  I prefer the XML treatment of newline (ie translated to 0x000A for
>>>>  processing purposes).  I would be in favour of restricting newline
>>  >> to
>>>>  <0x000A>, <0x000D> or <0x000D 0x000A>, which means that only these
>>>>  combinations have the syntactic significance of a newline.
>>>>
>>>>  I would be satisfied with that approach.
>>>>
>>>>   From
>>>>  memory, this significance is restricted to:
>>>>
>>>>  1. end of comment
>>>>  2. whitespace
>>>>  3. use in <eol><semicolon> digraph
>>>>
>>>>  The significance also extends to 'single'- and "double"-quote
>>>>  delimited data values, in that these cannot contain end-of-line.
>>>>
>>>>  I would also restrict the appearance of the remaining Unicode
>>>>  newline
>>>>  characters to delimited datavalues, to maintain consistent display
>>>>  of
>>>>  data files.
>>>>
>>>>  I'm seeing more and more upside to restricting *all* non-ASCII
>>>>  characters to delimited data values.  I don't have any objection to
>>>>  restricting U+0085, U+2028, and U+2029 (did I miss any?) to such
>>>>  contexts.
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>  John
>>>>  --
>>>>  John C. Bollinger, Ph.D.
>>>>  Department of Structural Biology
>>>>  St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>
>>>>  Email Disclaimer:  www.stjude.org/emaildisclaimer
>>>>
>>>>  _______________________________________________
>>>>  ddlm-group mailing list
>>>>  ddlm-group@iucr.org
>>>>  http://scripts.iucr.org/mailman/listinfo/ddlm-group
>>>>
>>>>  --
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>   Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>>>>     Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>>>>          Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>>>>
>>>>                   +1-631-244-3035
>>>>                   yaya@dowling.edu
>>>>  =====================================================
>>>>  _______________________________________________
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>>>>
>>>>
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>>--
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>
> --
> =====================================================
>  Herbert J. Bernstein, Professor of Computer Science
>    Dowling College, Kramer Science Center, KSC 121
>         Idle Hour Blvd, Oakdale, NY, 11769
>
>                  +1-631-244-3035
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> =====================================================
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