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Re: CIF-JSON new draft

Comments are listed 1. 1. 1.

I suggest encoding one actual structure. For example, a small simple structure such as quartz: http://chemapps.stolaf.edu/jmol/jsmol/data/quartz.cif. People reading this would be more familiar with that and would more quickly see what is happening to the CIF data.

One question: In the CIF 1.0 spec we see:

17. The special sequence of end-of-line followed immediately by a semicolon in column one (denoted "<eol>;") may also be used as a delimiter at the beginning and end of a character string comprising a data value. The complete bounded string is called a text field, and may be used to convey multi-line values. The end-of-line associated with the closing semicolon does not form part of the data value. Within a multi-line text field, leading white space within text lines must be retained as part of the data value; trailing white space on a line may however be elided.

So I presume this CIF string in quartz.cif

 Structure and elastic properties of quartz at pressure
 P = 1 atm

would  be encoded in JSON as:

_publ_section_title: "\n Structure and elastic properties of quartz at pressure\n P = 1 atm"



On Sun, Apr 30, 2017 at 10:21 PM, Robert Hanson <hansonr@stolaf.edu> wrote:
Looks great. What's the " ```json" business? Is that in a JSON specification somewhere? I thought JSON must start with "[" or "{" -- that's what RFC 7493 states.

On Sun, Apr 30, 2017 at 8:25 PM, James Hester <jamesrhester@gmail.com> wrote:
Dear CIF developers,

I have redrafted the CIF-JSON proposal to take account of the comments over the past few weeks.  In particular, I have removed discussion of "conversion from a CIF file" and instead expressed the proposal as a JSON representation of "CIF information".  I have also noted that this JSON format is not suitable for high-fidelity conversion of CIF syntax files, and added a pointer to "COD-JSON".  Given the choice of 'Metadata' and 'meta data' I have opted for 'Metadata' but that is really a coin toss and we can allow both if there is no agreement.

The full diff listing is available from the following Github link: https://github.com/COMCIFS/comcifs.github.io/commit/fe587d0c724eff97db4c31faaa8ebb09a808af1f#diff-fd4fbe8f7dc33b4a97fb39965f4e0243
and the latest draft is at https://github.com/COMCIFS/comcifs.github.io/blob/master/cif-json.md

I append the latest text below as well.

Comments welcome. If we are generally satisfied, I will submit this to COMCIFS for their approval.


# JSON representation of CIF information (DRAFT)

## Introduction

The Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) is a set of specifications for describing
scientific information.  One or more *datavalues* are attached to *datanames* to form
*dataitems*. Dataitems are collected together into *datablocks*.  Datablocks are in turn
collected into *datafiles*.  Datanames, the possible values that can be attached to
them, and dataname membership in *loops* (tabulations), are described in CIF 
*dictionaries*. In the following standard, *CIF information* refers to any scientific
information that can be defined and encapsulated using the above model.  The CIF1 and CIF2
syntaxes describe closely related file formats for expressing CIF information in a
form suitable for long-term archiving and transfer.

JSON is a lightweight language for serialisation and transfer of data.
JSON is often used as a "pipeline" language to transfer information
between programs within a single system, and also as a way of
transferring information between internet applications.  JSON
libraries are widely available and therefore it is relatively simple
implement parsing and output of JSON.

A standard way of expressing CIF information in JSON would allow
programs from different authors running within a single context (such
as a web browser or operating system) to interoperate with minimal work. The following
CIF-JSON standard is intended to facilitate interoperability of such

## The JSON representation of CIF information

In the following, *name* refers to a JSON name and *value* to a JSON value. A
JSON *object* is a collection of `name:value` pairs. CIF-related datastructures
are described in the introduction.

CIF information is represented in JSON as follows:

1. A CIF datafile is represented as a single JSON object
1. The JSON file must conform to the i-JSON standard [RFC7493](https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc7493)
1. A CIF datablock is represented by a JSON object within the top-level object. This object is referred 
to here as the *JSON datablock object*.  The name of this object must be in Unicode case-normal form (which
means lower-case for Western scripts), and 
conform to the characterset restrictions of the CIF2 syntax for datablock names.
1. A CIF dataname is a name in the JSON datablock object. The JSON name
is the CIF dataname, including the underscore.
1. Datavalues are represented as follows:
   1. CIF string values are represented as JSON string values
   1. CIF number values are represented as JSON string values formatted according to the 
   `<Numeric>` production in International Tables
   for Crystallography, Volume G, Section paragraph 57. Note that
   this CIF `<Numeric>` production is identical to the JSON number format with optional
   standard uncertainty appended in round brackets.
    3. The special CIF value `.` (null) is represented as the JSON `null` value
    4. The special CIF value `?` (unknown) is represented as a JSON string containing the single Unicode code point `0xFFFF`.
    5. (CIF2 only).  CIF2 list datavalues are represented as JSON lists. The datavalues appearing
  in the list are represented in the same way as non-list datavalues.
    6. (CIF2 only).  CIF2 table datavalues are represented as JSON objects. The names in the object
  are the same as the names in the CIF table. The values in the CIF table are represented in the same
  way as other CIF datavalues
    7. (Looped values). The column of values corresponding to a looped
  CIF dataname is represented as a JSON list. This list becomes the value of
  the JSON name corresponding to that dataname. Each value in the list
  is represented as for unlooped datanames
6. A JSON datablock object may contain a special name: `loop tags`.  If this name
appears, its value will be a list of lists.  For each loop in the CIF block,
a list of the datanames appearing in the loop will be included in the `loop tags` value.
7. It is not an error to omit the `loop tags` name, even when the CIF data block contains
a loop. If the `loop tags` name appears, information on all loops in the datablock must be
9. If the CIF data block includes save frames (currently only used in dictionaries), 
the JSON datablock object must contain the special name `frames`. The value of this name
is a JSON object. Each name in this object is the name of a save frame
found in the datablock. The value for each of these names is a JSON datablock object, represented
as for normal CIF data blocks.
10. An optional object named `Metadata` may be present in the top-level object. The object name
must begin with a capital 'M' to distinguish it from a normal datablock name. The `Metadata` object contains
information that is useful for conversion of CIF-JSON objects to other syntaxes
(for example, CIF syntax files) and information about the CIF-JSON version.  The following names are defined for the `Metadata` object:
    1. `cif-version`: the minimum CIF syntax version required to express the contents of the object; currently `1.1` or `2.0` are available
    1. `schema-name`: always `CIF-JSON`
    1. `schema-version`: the version of the CIF-JSON schema that this JSON object conforms to
    1. `schema-uri`: a URI for the CIF-JSON schema.
## Comments

1. A JSON list is used both for columns and CIF2 lists.  Where a
dataname is known to occur in a loop (either through the `loop tags` name
or as stated in the relevant CIF dictionary), the JSON parser may assume
that each entry in the outermost list level is the column entry.
1. Any list-valued name that does not appear in a loop is a CIF2 list.
1. This specification contains some features to allow straightforward
conversion to JSON from files in CIF syntax. However, round-tripping
through CIF-JSON will not preserve features of CIF syntax that are not
used by CIF dictionaries. In particular, block and dataname order, and
the type of delimiters used, if any, are not expressed in CIF-JSON. If
such high-fidelity transformation is required (for example, for CIF
syntax validation) the COD-JSON format used by the freely available
[COD tools](http://wiki.crystallography.net/cod-tools/) is

## Example

### CIF syntax file:

      _dataname.a   syzygy
      _flight.vector    [0.25 1.2(15) -0.01(12)]
      _dataname.table   {"save":222 "mode":full "url":"http:/bit.ly/2"}
      _flight.bearing  221.45(7)
        1    4.23(14)     [a a a c]    1.5e-6(2)
        2   11.9(3)       [c a c a]    2.1e-6(11)
        3    0.2(4)       [b a a a]    0.0051(4)
        4     .              .             ?
        xxp     {"s":2  "k":-5}
        yyx     {"s":1  "k":-2}
      _dataname.chapter   1.2
    <whatever>This contains one very long line \
    <whatever>that we wrap around using the \
    <whatever>excellent CIF2 line expansion protocol.
       _abc    xyz
          _abc   yzx
             apple    red
             pear     green

### Equivalent CIF-JSON:

         "_dataname.table":{"save":222, "mode":"full", "url":"http:/bit.ly/2"},
         "_q.access":[{"s":2,  "k":-5},{"s":1,  "k":-2}],
         "_dataname.verylong":"This contains one very long line that we wrap around using the excellent CIF2 line expansion protocol.",
         "loop tags":[["_x.id","_y","_z"],["_q.key","_q.access"]],

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Robert M. Hanson
Larson-Anderson Professor of Chemistry
St. Olaf College
Northfield, MN

If nature does not answer first what we want,
it is better to take what answer we get.

-- Josiah Willard Gibbs, Lecture XXX, Monday, February 5, 1900

Robert M. Hanson
Larson-Anderson Professor of Chemistry
St. Olaf College
Northfield, MN

If nature does not answer first what we want,
it is better to take what answer we get.

-- Josiah Willard Gibbs, Lecture XXX, Monday, February 5, 1900

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