An introduction to crystal physics
Description of the physical properties of crystals
Most monographs on physics discussing the physical properties of matter usually proceed from isotropic materials and as a generalization include a more or less limited description of the behaviour of crystalline bodies. This way of presentation is doubtless advantageous, however, it implies a separate discussion of the various properties, inevitably obscuring the general principles and methods applicable in the theory of crystal properties. The purpose of the present work is to discuss and summarize in a unified treatment the physical properties of crystals, and to illustrate by some typical examples the principles and methods underlying a uniform description of these properties.
For an introduction, in order to develop a clear crystal physical picture, let us investigate the problem of the dielectric susceptibility in an isotropic and an anisotropic medium respectively.
In isotropic insulators the dipoles generated in the course of dielectric polarization are parallel with the electric field (Fig. 1a), consequently the relation between the vector of the electric polarization () and the electric field (), that is the susceptibility, can be characterized by one single value ().
In an anisotropic medium, however, the dipoles formed during the dielectric polarization are generally not parallel with the electric field. Fig. 1b depicts the relatively simple case in which the dipoles though arranged in a plane parallel with the electric field (represented by the plane of the drawing) have a different direction. In this case the vector of the electric polarization () due to the vertical electric field ( = )) has not only a vertical () but also a horizontal component (). Consequently in the case of Fig. 1b two quantities (; )are necessary to describe the relation between the vertical electric field and the electric polarization, and the components of the two vectors in question are connected by the equations
Generally, when investigating the dielectric polarization in the three dimensional space one finds that, disregarding the higher order effects, in an x1, x2, x3 coordinate system the following equations hold between the components of the vector of the electric field ( = [E1, E2, E3]) and the components of the electric polarization ( = [P1, P2, P3]):
This means that altogether nine data are necessary to describe the relation between the electric field and the electric polarization. By means of vector algebra it can be shown that in case of an orthogonal coordinate transformation the nine coefficients in the eq. (1.3) transform as the products of the components of two vectors, i.e. they are components of a second-rank tensor. Consequently the dielectric susceptibility in an anisotropic medium can be described by a second-rank tensor.
Equations (1.3) can be rewritten in an abbreviated form
With Einstein's notation the symbol can be omitted if in the same term a suffix occurs twice. Accordingly eq. (1.4) takes the following form
In the forthcoming discussions the Einstein convention will be used.
2. Physical properties as tensors
It has been demonstrated in the introduction that the dielectric susceptibility of an anisotropic medium can be described with a second-rank tensor which expresses the relation between two physical quantities i.e. the relation between the vector of polarization and the vector of the electric field. Similarly the greater part of the various physical properties may be described with a tensor which establishes the relation existing between measurable physical tensor quantities. Every scalar is a zero-rank, and every vector a first-rank tensor. Generally in crystal physics a set of 3r quantities with r indices transforming under transition from the old coordinates to the new ones as the products of the components of r vectors is called a polar (or true) tensor of rank r.
Accordingly if the [Bijk...n] and [Apqr...u] tensors represent physical quantities the general form of the relation between these quantities may be written (in first-order approximation) using the Einstein's convention as follows
It follows from the tensor algebra that if [Apqr...u] denotes an f-rank and [Bijk...n] a g-rank tensor the [aijk...npqr...u], denoting the physical property, must be an (f + g)-rank tensor.
Let us consider some examples. In a given state the density of matter expresses the relationship between its mass and volume, they are represented by 0-rank tensors, consequently the density is represented by a 0-rank tensor (i.e. a scalar). The pyroelectric properties of crystals are described by a first-rank tensor. The pyroelectric tensor, (essentially a vector) represents the relation between a first-rank tensor (the vector of electric polarization) and a zero-rank tensor (the temperature). Besides the dielectric susceptibility, the electrical conductivity, the heat conductivity, the thermal expansion and so on may be represented by a second-rank tensor. Further examples including properties which can be expressed with higher-rank tensors are summarized in Table 1.
Crystals have further on also some anisotropic properties which cannot be directly represented by tensors, such properties - not to be discussed in this paper - are for instance the tensile strength, flow stress, surface energy, rate of growth and dissolution, and so on.
|Property or effect||Tensor notation||Tensor rank||Maximum no. of independent components||Defining equation||Physical quantities in the defining equation|
|Specific heat||c||1||entropy||T temperature|
|Pyroelectricity||[pi]||1||3||[Pi] dielectric polarization||T temperature|
|Electrocaloric effect||[pi]||1||3||entropy||[Ei] electric field|
|Dielectric permittivity||2||6||[Di] electric displacement||[Ej] electric field|
|Magnetic permeability||2||6||[Bi] magnetic induction||[Hj] magnetic field|
|Electrical conductivity||2||6||[ji] current density||[Ek] electric field|
|Electrical resistivity||2||6||[Ei] electric field||[jk] current density|
|Thermal conductivity||[kij]||2||6||[hi] heat flux||temperature gradient|
|Thermal expansion||2||6||strain||T temperature|
|Seebeck effect||2||9||[Ei] electric field||temperature gradient|
|Peltier effect||2||9||[hi] heat flux||[jk] current density|
|Hall effect||3||9||[Ei] electric field||[jk] current density [Hl] magnetic field|
|Direct piezoelectric effect||[dijk]||3||18||[Pi] dielectric polarization||stress|
|Converse piezoelectric effect||[dijk]||3||18||strain||[Ei] electric field|
|Piezomagnetic effect||[qlij]||3||18||[Ml] magnetic polarization||stress|
|Electro-optical effect||[rijk]||3||18||[aij] dielectric impermeability||[Ek] electric field|
|Second harmonic generation||[dijk]||3||18||dielectric polarization at frequency||electric field|
|Second-order elastic stiffnesses||[cijkl]||4||21||stress||strain|
|Second-order elastic compliances||[sijkl]||4||21||strain||stress|
|Piezooptic effect||4||36||[aij] dielectric impermeability||stress|
|Quadratic electrooptic effect||[Rijkl]||4||36||[aij] dielectric impermeability||electric field|
|Third-order elastic stresses||[cijklmn]||6||56||energy of deformation [cijkl] second-order stiffnesses||the Lagrange finite strain components|
3. The intrinsic symmetry of the physical properties
The rank of the tensors determines the numbers of the tensor components. The number of the components of the 0,1,2,3,4,5,6-rank tensors are 1,3,9,27,81,243,729. However, certain symmetries considerably reduce the number of the independent components. These may be intrinsic symmetries, inherent in the physical property, or crystal symmetries, whose effect on the number of the independent components will be discussed in the next section.
In some instances the intrinsic symmetries follow from the definition of the physical property in question. Thus for example in the case of elasticity it follows from the symmetry of the stress and deformation tensors that also the fourth-rank tensor of the second-order elastic stiffnesses [cijkl] (see Table 1) is symmetric with respect to the (ij) and (kl) permutations. This way the number of the independent coefficients of the fourth-rank elastic tensor decreases from 81 to 36. Further on from the symmetry of the deformation tensor follows the symmetry of the [dijk] piezo-electric tensor (see Table 1) with respect to the commutability of the j and k suffixes, which means that the piezoelectric tensor has not more than 18 independent components.
The symmetries inherent in the physical properties may be in most cases found by thermodynamical reasoning. In case of equilibrium properties, i.e. properties which refer to thermodynamically reversible changes, the intrinsic symmetry of the properties can be disclosed by investigating the thermodynamical potentials. For physical properties characteristic for transport processes the intrinsic symmetry is the consequence of Onsager's principle.
In order to illustrate the thermodynamical discussion of equilibrium properties let us consider a more complicated example from which not only the symmetry of the tensors representing individual physical properties (tensors of elasticity, electric and magnetic susceptibility) but also the relationship among the tensors representing various properties becomes obvious. In the example the elastic, thermo, electric and magnetic effects are investigated simultaneously. Independent variables should be the stress , the electric field [Ek], the magnetic field [Hl] and temperature [T] whereas the deformation , the polarization [Pi], the magnetization [Mi] and the entropy [S] are selected as dependent variables. The differentials of the former quantities are obviously connected with the following relationships:
The partial derivatives are characteristic of the following effects:
1. Elastic deformation.
2. Reciprocal (or converse) piezo-electric effect.
3. Reciprocal (or converse) piezo-magnetic effect.
4. Thermal dilatation.
5. Piezo-electric effect.
6. Electric polarization.
7. Magneto-electric polarization.
9. Piezo-magnetic effect.
10. Reciprocal (or converse) magneto-electric polarization.
11. Magnetic polarization.
13. Piezo-caloric effect.
14. Electro-caloric effect.
15. Magneto-caloric effect.
16. Heat transmission.
In order to recognize the relationships among the partial derivatives of the equation-system (3.1) let us discuss the Gibb's potential of the system
Investigating the second partial derivatives of the Gibbs' potential and taking into consideration the commutability of the sequence of the partial differentiations one comes to the conclusion that the elastic [sijkl], dielectric  and diamagnetic susceptibility  tensors, as defined by eqs. (3.10)-(3.12) below, are symmetrical
(a) the components of the tensors representing the piezoelectric and reciprocal piezo-electric effect (eq. 3.13)),
(b) the components of the tensors representing the piezo-magnetic and reciprocal piezo-magnetic effect (eq. (3.14)),
(c) the components of the tensors representing the magneto-electric polarization and reciprocal magneto-electric polarization (eq. (3.15)),
(d) the components of the tensors representing the piezo-caloric effect and the thermal dilatation (eq. (3.16)),
(e) the components of the tensors representing the pyroelectric and electrocaloric effect (eq. (3.17)),
(f) the components of the tensors representing the pyromagnetic and magneto- caloric effect (eq. (3.18)).
Integrating equations (3.1) taking into consideration the above statements, and restricting only to the first-order effects, the following system of equations is obtained
It is perhaps worthwhile to draw the reader's attention to the fact that the system of equations (3.19) represents 16 = 9 + 3 + 3 + 1 equations, the right side of these equations contains 16 terms, since the suffixes occurring twice in each term imply summation according to the Einstein convention. Furthermore the deformation tensor  and the stress tensor are symmetrical, consequently the system of equation (3.19) contains altogether 13 independent equations with 13 independent variables.
As has been pointed out the intrinsic symmetry characteristic for the transport processes is the consequence of Onsager's reciprocal relations. However, it is important to stress that this relation is valid only if the fluxes and the thermodynamical forces connected with them are suitably selected. For simplicity let us study the case of the electrical conductivity. The thermodynamical force [Xk] attached to the electrical current density [ji] is
In this case the law of linear current flow is
According to Onsager's reciprocity relation the Lik conductivity coefficients are symmetrical with respect to the interchangeability of the suffices, i.e.
|Lik = Lki.||(3.23)|
Discussing composite transport processes by some proper selection of the fluxes and thermodynamical forces corresponding to them not only the symmetry of the various tensors, but also the relationships among the tensors representing various properties follow from Onsager's reciprocity relations. For example when discussing the thermoelectric effects the symmetry of the electrical and thermal conductivity tensors follow from Onsager's principle as well as the relationships between the tensors representing the Seebeck effect and the Peltier tensor  (see Table 1).
4. Neumann's principle
It has been demonstrated in the previous section that the intrinsic symmetry of the physical properties decreases the number of the independent tensor components. Further reduction of the independent components of a physical property tensor, and the zero value of certain components follow from the fact that the crystal symmetry exerts some influence on the symmetry of the physical properties. This fact is expressed by Neuman's principle formulated already in the 19th century according to which the symmetry elements of any physical property of a crystal must include all the symmetry elements of the point group of the crystal :
The well-known equations of transformation from an orthogonal x1, x2, x3 system to another similarly orthogonal system are for first-, second-, third- and fourth-rank polar tensors according to their definition:
In some cases the tensor describing the physical properties is not polar, but axial (as for instance the tensor describing the optical activity or piezomagnetism). For axial (or pseudo) tensors the following transformation relation may be used as definition
It is not difficult to find out whether the tensor representing any physical property is polar or axial, since this can be easily decided by the eq. (2.1) defining the physical property in question. If only one of the tensors [Apqr...u] and [Bijk...n] in eq. (2.1) is axial (for instance magnetic field is an axial tensor of rank one) also the property tensor [aijk...npqr...u] as defined by eq. (2.1) will be axial, in every other case the tensor is polar.
It should be remarked that if also the magnetic point groups are considered eq. (4.6) and eq. (4.8) expressing the transformation properties of the tensor components are valid only for conventional symmetry operations. If, however, the conventional symmetry operations are combined with time-inversion which actually happens in anti-symmetry operations (see [10-14]) the right sides of eqs. (4.6) and (4.8) respectively should be multiplied with (-1) whenever eq. (2.1) defining the physical properties contains the magnetic vector quantities (magnetic field, magnetic induction, magnetization vector) odd times. Tensors representing this type of properties are called C-tensors.1 For a more detailed discussion of this problem the reader is referred to the literature.1-3
Considering the equations of transformation (4.6) and (4.8) and with regard to the above remark, the relationships between the components of the polar and axial tensors for a given crystal class can now be defined, since the invariance of a tensor with regard to any symmetry operation requires the relationship
For every tensor component an equation of the type (4.10) and (4.11) respectively should be valid so that the tensor components must satisfy a system of these equations. Since this holds for every symmetry operation of a given crystal class, the number of the systems of equations between the tensor components will be equal to the number of the symmetry operations which may be performed in the given crystal class. However, in order to obtain every relationship among the components of a tensor representing any physical property in case of a given crystal class, it is not necessary to write down for every symmetry operation the system of equations of the type (4.10) and (4.11) respectively. It is well known from the group theory that for various crystal classes every symmetry operation may be deduced from a few basic symmetry operations. The application of the matrices corresponding to these basic operations (the generating matrices) are sufficient to obtain the effect due to the symmetry of a crystal class on the given tensor in question. Tables 2 and 3 summarize a series of generating matrices for every conventional crystal class.
These interrelations appear to be at first instance somewhat complicated, a simple example, however, will help to obtain a better understanding. Let us consider the form of the pyroelectric tensor in the crystal class 3 of the trigonal system assuming that the x3 axis of the coordinate system is the three-fold rotation axis. As one may see on consulting Tables 2 and 3 the coordinate transformation related to the symmetry operation can be described with the following matrix
Taking into consideration the condition of invariance of the polar tensor as expressed in eq. (4.10) one obtains for the tensor components the following equations
p3=p3.It follows from these equations that p1 = p2 = 0 and only p3 can differ from zero, consequently the form of the pyroelectric tensor of crystal class 3 of the trigonal system will be p = [0; 0; p3].
|Crystal system||Class symbol||Generating matrices||No. of symmetry elements||The choice of x1, x2, x3 crystal physical axes in relation to the symmetry axes|
|mmm||Vh=D2h||M5, M6, M3||8|
|4/mmm||D4h||M7, M3, M5||16|
|6/mmm||D6h||M11, M5, M3||24|
|inversion||fourfold inversion-rotation about x3 axis|
|twofold rotation about x3 axis||threefold rotation about x3 axis|
|reflection in x1x2 plane||threefold inversion-rotation about x3 axis|
|twofold rotation about x1 axis||sixfold rotation about x3 axis|
|reflection in x2x3 plane||sixfold inversion-rotation about x3 axis|
|reflection in x1x3 plane||threefold rotation about  direction|
|fourfold rotation about x3 axis||threefold inversion-rotation about  direction|
The method used in this example may be applied in every case, though with higher rank tensors it may be in many cases rather tiresome.
Considerable time can be saved (with the exception of the trigonal and hexagonal classes) by the direct inspection method worked out by Fumi,4, which though in principle not differing from the previous treatment leads to results in a relatively short time. Fumi's method is based on the fact that in an orthogonal coordinate system the polar tensor components transform in the same way as the products of the corresponding coordinates (see eq. (4.6)). One must, however, be careful not to commute the sequence of the factors, thus for instance instead of the product x1x2 one cannot write x2x1.
Fumi's method may be studied by a simple example considering the form of a polar second-rank tensor, e.g. the dielectric susceptibility tensor of the crystal class 2 of the monoclinic system. Assuming that the two-fold symmetry axis coincides with the x2 coordinate axis the symmetry operator will transform the coordinates in the following way
The forms of tensors or matrices composed of tensor components for the various crystal classes can be found properly tabulated in the special literature, see for example [1, 2, 5-7, 16, 17].
Finally it should be observed that in some cases simple geometric considerations enable the determination of the independent components of the tensors representing the physical properties. It is easy to see that no pyroelectric effect can exist in a crystal possessing a centre of symmetry. This means that for these crystals every component of the pyroelectric tensor is zero, p = [0, 0, 0], because in these crystals if the vector of polarization were pointed in a given direction the vector should appear also in the opposite direction as a result of Neumann's principle, consequently its value can only be zero.
5. The value of a physical property in a given direction
One frequently finds data in the literature which give the value of some physical property in a given direction. In this chapter the concept of the magnitude of a physical property in a given direction, and also the relationship between this value and the respective tensor components will be illustrated on the examples of the direction dependence of the electrical conductivity and Young's modulus respectively.
The specific conductivity in the direction of the electric field is defined as the ratio of the component parallel with the electric field of the current density () and the magnitude of the electric field (E), i.e. . Let the components of the electric field be Ei = Eni, where ni denotes the i-th component of the unit vector () pointing into the direction of the electric field. The component of the j current density parallel with is in tensor notation
Equation (5.3) may be applied in two ways. One possibility is to calculate the tensor components from the measured conductivity values and the corresponding direction cosines. For this purpose one should measure the electrical conductivity in different directions, which are not connected by symmetry, as many times as the number of the independent components. Another possibility of applying eq. (5.3) is quite opposite to the first one. With the aid of the already known tensor components the conductivity value can be computed for any direction.
Equation (5.3) becomes considerably simplified for crystals of the tetragonal, trigonal and hexagonal systems which have only two independent tensor-components ( and )
As another example we will study the direction dependence of Young's modulus. To begin with it should be stated that Young's modulus in the pulling direction is defined as the ratio of the longitudinal stress () and the longitudinal strain (. If the axis of the coordinate system is placed in the direction of the unit vector Young's modulus in this direction will apparently be
6. Higher order effects
The relationship between two physical properties is not necessarily linear. The relation between the dependent and independent physical variables can be often expressed with Taylor expansion. Thus for instance the electric field dependence of the electric polarization in a strong field is described with expansion in power series
There is some freedom in deciding the order of an effect, which depends upon the aspect the effect is studied. Thus in the above example if instead of the tensor  the differential quotient with respect to the electric field of the electric polarization vector (i.e. the  tensor) is considered as dielectric susceptibility, the previously second-order effect may be regarded as a first-order effect, which describes the electric field dependence of the dielectric susceptibility. This becomes obvious from the equation
Finally it should be noted that in the theory of elasticity the coefficients of the second-order effect are called third-order elastic stiffnesses, because it is more suitable to start the discussion of the nonlinear stress-deformation relationship with the energy function whose third-order derivatives supply the coefficients of the principally second-order effects.
7. Description of the physical properties in matrix notation
It has been shown in the previous sections that the various physical properties of the crystals can be described quite suitably with tensors. However, especially with higher rank tensors the great number of suffixes may become inconvenient. In many cases the introduction of a new notation, the matrix notation, is suitable to reduce the number of suffixes. The introduction of the matrix notation may be encouraged by the usually considerable reduction, due to intrinsic symmetries, of the number of independent components of the tensors representing the physical properties.
Let us consider first a simple example. For some purpose the following () matrices are formed from the components of the symmetrical second rank  tensor
This way by introducing the matrix notation the number of the suffixes is reduced on the condition that the new suffixes beside 1, 2 and 3 can now take also the values 4, 5 and 6. Although the relationship between the suffixes of the tensor components and matrix elements is unambiguous, the relationship between the tensor components and the matrix elements is defined to the extent of a multiplication factor. A few examples explaining the role of this factor are given below.
The advantage of the matrix notation becomes obvious with the third and higher rank tensors. A third rank tensor, occurring rather frequently in crystal physics, is the piezo-electric tensor, which describes the relationship between the stresses effective on the crystal and the resulting electric polarization according to the equation
It is important to notice that some authors do not introduce the multiplication factor two in the interpretation of the n = 4, 5 and 6 elements of the piezoelectric matrix. This, however, excludes the compact description of the relationship between the vector of the electric polarization and the mechanical stress presented in eq. (7.7).
Similarly other matrices representing various physical properties may be defined by different authors in different ways. Therefore when trying to use the numerical values as published in the literature the various definitions used by the authors should be taken into account.
Finally in order to demonstrate the advantage of the matrix notation let us investigate the elasticity of crystals. Hooke's law takes in tensor notation the following form
Now, since the components of the [cijkl] tensor are symmetrical with regard to the first two and last two suffixes, respectively, these may be substituted each with one new suffix according to (7.3).
Further on the elements of the (cmn) matrix can be defined by the equation
Expressing the strains in terms of the stresses one obtains the equation
Simple calculation shows that between the elements of the above (smn) matrix and the components of the [sijkl] tensor expressing the relationship between the components of the  strain and the  stress respectively the following correspondence holds
Finally it should be noted that with the matrix notation, if applied, the number of the suffixes does not refer to the transformation formula of the matrix elements. Thus for example in case of a coordinate transformation the elements of the piezo-electric matrix (dij) transform differently from the matrix elements (cij) of the elasticity.
8. Curie's principle
The crystal symmetry depends upon the state of the crystal. If, due to some external influence, there is a change in the state of the crystal, there may also be a change in the crystal symmetry. The symmetry of a given state of a crystal may be determined using the Curie principle from the symmetry of the crystal free of any external influence and from the symmetry of the external influence.
According to Curie when various natural phenomena are piled upon each other forming a system, the dissymmetries are added up leaving only those elements which separately, in each phenomenon regarded in itself, were present. By dissymmetry Curie meant the sum of the absent symmetry elements.8 Curie's principle in itself may be formulated in the physics of crystals as follows: the symmetry group of a crystal under an external influence () is given by the greatest common subgroup of the symmetry group of the crystal without the influence (K) and of the symmetry group of the external influence (G) considering also the mutual position of the symmetry elements of these groups:9
As an example let us investigate the change of symmetry in the ADP (ammonium dihydrogen phosphate) crystals in an electric field of various directions. The ground state symmetry of these crystals is , i.e. it has a fourfold inversion axis (which contains in itself also a two-fold rotation axis). The fourfold inversion axis lies in the line of intersection of two mutually perpendicular planes of symmetry. Two diad axes are perpendicular to the fourfold inversion axis and at 45 to the planes of symmetry. This is demonstrated in axionometric and stereographic representation respectively in Figs. 2 and 3. The symmetry of the electric field is , i.e. it corresponds to the symmetry of a cone, which has an infinite-fold rotation axis containing every possible rotation axes of lower symmetry including also the twofold axes, further on the infinite-fold rotation axis lies in the line of intersection of an infinite number of mirror planes.
First let us investigate the case when the electric field points in the  direction, which means that the vector of the electric field is parallel with the fourfold inversion axis of the crystal. The symmetry elements of the electric field do not include the inversion axis, therefore according to the Curie principle the resulting symmetry elements do not contain this axis. However, it should be observed that the fourfold inversion axis contains also a twofold rotation axis which is a symmetry element of the electric field, consequently the symmetry elements of the crystal in an electric field of the direction  will also contain this twofold axis. Of the basic symmetry elements the two mirror planes are also symmetry elements of the electric field, thus they are conserved in the crystal too. The twofold rotation axes perpendicular to the line of intersection of the mirror planes do not belong to the symmetry elements of the electric field, consequently they will disappear. Summing up the common symmetry elements of the electric field and the crystal in this field we have two mirror planes perpendicular to each other and a two-fold rotation axis in the line of intersection of the mirror planes. Thus the symmetry of the ADP crystal in the electric field of the  direction is reduced to the symmetry of the orthorhombic mm2 point group (Figs. 2 and 3a). If the electric field acts in the  direction, i.e. along a twofold rotation axis perpendicular to the fourfold inversion axis no mirror plane of the crystal coincides with the mirror planes of the electric field which results in the disappearance of the mirror planes. Further on also the fourfold inversion axis (together with the twofold rotation axis connected with the inversion axis), and also from the two other twofold axes one axis will disappear, since the electric field has only in one direction a rotation symmetry. This way only the twofold rotation axis (along which the electric field is effective) remains conserved with the result that the symmetry of the crystal is reduced to the monoclinic point group 2 (as depicted in Fig. 3b). If the electric field influences the crystal in the  direction, i.e. in one mirror plane, the common symmetry element will be one mirror plane: the crystal symmetry is reduced to the point group m of the monoclinic system (Fig. 3c). Finally if the electric field points in an arbitrary [hkl] direction, different from the directions already discussed, no symmetry element of the crystal and the electric field coincides. Consequently no symmetry element is preserved. In this case the symmetry of the crystal is reduced to the trivial point group 1 of the triclinic system (Fig. 3d).
It follows from the foregoing that the originally optically uniaxial ADP crystal will under the influence of an electric field behave like an optically biaxial crystal.
It should be noted that the Curie principle constitutes only a special case of the great principle of the superposition of the symmetry groups. A detailed discussion of this subject, however, would go beyond the scope of this paper, one can refer to the book of Shubnikov and Koptsik.10
The author would like to thank Prof. M. P. Shaskolskaya, Dr. N. V. Perelomova and Dr. M. M. Tagieva for useful advice and valuable discussions. Further he thanks his colleagues for reading the manuscript and helpful comments.
1. Birss, R. R., Symmetry and Magnetism, Amsterdam, North-Holland Publishing Company (1964).
2. Bhagavantam, S., Crystal Symmetry and Physical Properties, London, New York, Academic Press (1966).
3. Sirotin, Yu. I. and Shaskolskaya, M. P., Fundamentals of Crystal Physics, Moscow, Mir Publishers (1982).
4. Fumi, F. G., Acta Cryst. 5 (1952) 44.
5. Nye, J. F., Physical Properties of Crystals, Oxford, Clarendon Press (1957).
6. Smith, A. C., Janak, J. F., Adler, R. B., Electronic Conduction in Solids, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company (1967).
7. Hellwege, K. -H. (ed.), Landolt-Börnstein, New Series, Group III., Vol. 11, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer-Verlag (1979).
8. Curie, P., Oeuvres, pp. 118, Paris, Société Français de Physique (1908).
9. Koptsik, V. A., Sov. Phys. Cryst. 2 (1957) 99.
10. Shubnikov, A. V. and Koptsik, V. A., Symmetry in Science and Art, New York and London, Plenum Press (1977).
11. Shubnikov, A. V. and Belov, N. V., Colored Symmetry, Oxford, Pergamon Press (1964).
12. Juretschke, Hellmut, J., Crystal Physics, Massachusetts, W. A. Benjamin, Inc. Reading (1974).
13. Koptsik, V. A., Shubnikov's groups (In Russian), Moscow, Moscow University Press (1966).
14. Opechowski, W. and Guccione, R., Magnetic symmetry, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl (eds.), Magnetism, Vol. II/A, p. 105, New York, London, Academic Press (1965).
15. Shuvalov, L. A. (ed.), Modern Crystallography IV. Physical Properties of Crystals. Springer Series in Solid-State Sciences, Vol. 37. Springer- Verlag, in preparation.
16. Wooster, W. A., Tensors and Group Theory for the Physical Properties of Crystals, Oxford, Clarendon Press (1973).
17. Perelomova, N. V. and Tagieva, N. M., Problems in Crystal Physics with solutions, Moscow, Mir Publishers (1983).
Many further references are found in each of the cited books.