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Hard X-ray Fourier transform holography from an array of oriented referenced objects

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2011). 18, 564–568 (

[Test pattern] Scanning ion microscope image of the test pattern (lower right, a Chinese character meaning 'up') and multiple images restored from a hard X-ray hologram.

The use of multiple, oriented and singly referenced objects was evaluated as a means to overcome the low scattering cross section inherent in hard X-ray Fourier transform holography. The nanofabricated test pattern consisted of identical characters, each with a reference dot, arranged in a 5 × 5 matrix. The image of each object was restored as in the conventional single-object case. This technique can be considered as a means to image biological macromolecules or their assemblies, which diffract weakly but of which identical copies are available.

H. Iwamoto and N. Yagi