Crystallography in Poland
The first description of crystalline minerals written in the Polish language was published in 1692 by Wojciech Tylkowski. Polish textbooks of mineralogy containing elements of crystallography were published in the universities of Krakow and Lwow in the second half of the 19th century. Between the World Wars, crystallography operated at the Krakow, Lwow, Poznan, Warsaw and Wilno universities. At the Jagiellonian U. in Krakow in 1933, S. Kreutz, an author of books on theoretical crystallography, supervised the Ph.D. thesis of S. Janik on the X-ray structure of ZnCl2.2NH3. At the Lwow U., L. Chrobak studied inorganic crystals by X-ray methods, T. Baranowski grew protein single crystals of muscle myogen and Z. Wayberg, studied crystal symmetry and morphology. Other early crystallographic studies included analysis of metal alloys by powder methods (W. Trzebiatowski, Technical U. of Lwow), iron hydroxides using Debye Scherrer methods (A. Krauze, Poznán U.) and geological samples (A. Rychlewski and E. Passendorfer, Wilno U.). At Warsaw U., S. Pienkowski studied polymers and single crystals by X-ray and electron diffraction and in 1935 A. Laszkiewicz, published a paper on the structure of hexamethyltetramine salicylate. J. Czochralski (Technical U. Warsaw) studied growth and properties of single crystals of metals.
Organizations of Polish crystallographers include The Committee of Crystallography of PAN (chair, A. Pietraszko), The Polish Society of Crystal Growth (chair, S. Krukowski), The Polish Society of Synchrotron Radiation, (chair, B. Orlowski), The Polish Society of Neutron Scattering, (chair, A. Szytula.), and the Polish Crystallographic Association (PCA), (chair, S. Hodorowicz). Universities and Institutes of PAN are the main centers of crystallographic research in Poland and there are X-ray powder diffraction laboratories in industrial institutions. In this report five areas of crystallographic study in Poland are summarized: I) chemical crystallography, II) physical crystallography, III) applied crystallography, IV) crystal growth and liquid crystals and V) protein crystallography. An additional section (VI), written by Z. Dauter (editor of Acta Cryst. Section D) discusses Polish crystallographers working outside of Poland.
The largest groups investigating chemical crystal structures are at the Universities of Krakow, Lodz, Poznan, Warsaw and Wroclaw and the Institutes of the PAN in Warsaw and Wroclaw. Crystallographic research is also pursued in laboratories in Gdansk, Katowice, Lodz, Lublin, Opole, Torun, Czestochowa and Siedlce.
The Crystal Chemistry and Crystal Physics Dept., Jagiellonian U., Krakow (K. Stadnicka, email@example.com.) was founded in 1963 by J. Chojnacki, who studied fibrous isopolymolybdates and published the structure of cadmium oxycyanomolybdate(IV)dihydrazine tetrahydrate, in 1969. His followers lead five independent research groups. B. Oleksyn concentrates on biologically important compounds including antimalarials, flavonoids and sweeteners, potential drugs containing Se and Te, and inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activators and HIV-1 integrase. K. Stadnicka’s research interests include molybdate complexes, anti-hypertensive hydrazinephthalazines, anti-arrythmic hydantoin derivatives, optical properties of crystals, structures of molecular magnets, engineering of crystalline phases with NLO properties, and experimental electron density distribution in crystals. S. Hodorowicz’s interests include isopolymolybdates, high-temperature superconductors, the history of crystallography, the kinetics of crystallization, and phase transitions in crystalline state. W. Lasocha pursues powder diffraction analysis with ab initio and Rietveld refinement procedures. K. Lewinski’s protein studies are described in section V. Together with the staff of the Dept., S. Hodorowicz organized ECM 20 in Krakow in 2001 and promoted the Jagiellonian U. doctors honoris causa degree to Isabella and Jerome Karle in 2002. S. Hodorowicz was recently elected president of PCA.
In 1954 Z. Galdecki determined the crystal structure of KAs4O6, the first structure determination at the Crystallography Lab., Lodz U. of Technology (M. Glowka, firstname.lastname@example.org). Galdecki headed the Crystallography and Crystal Chemistry Group for almost 50 years. At present the 20 member staff of professors, senior scientists, PhD students, and technicians use crystallography to explore structure - activity relationships, drug-receptor interactions, crystal engineering, weak interactions in molecular crystals, stereospecific reaction mechanisms, polymorphism, electron density and solid catalysts. Current targets for analysis include anticonvulsants and adenosine receptor ligands (J.Karolak-Wojciechowska), antibacterial quinolones (M. Glowka), herbicides and structurally constrained endomorphine analogs (R. Kruszynski), Cu(II) complexes (L. Sieron), stereoelectronic control of molecular conformation and crystal packing (W. Wolf ), nitrozyl complexes of Re (T. Bartczak), and charge density studies of biological phosphates (W. Maniukiewicz). In 1990 Lodz U. of Technology became the National Affiliated Center of the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Center in Poland. The Crystallography Group has wide international colloborations, and awarded the degrees of doctors honoris causa to H. Hauptman and W. Duax.
In the 1970’s powder diffraction studies of zeolites were initiated in the Crystallography Dept., M. Curie-Sklodowska, U. Lublin (M. Koziol, email@example.com) under the leadership of. T. Penkala. Since 1976 the A. Koziol group has pursued single crystal studies and polymorphism of biologically active compounds and the S. Pikus group has used powder diffraction and SAXS methods to analyzse amorphous and microporous materials.
In the Dept. of Physical Chemistry and Crystallography, Jan Dlugosz, U. Czestochowa (M. Wieczorek, wandaB@autograf.pl) that was founded in 1990 by B. Marciniak, three professors (M. Krzesinska, M. Wieczorek and W. Pawliuk), study the growth, structure, morphology, perfection and properties of crystals formed by organic and intermetallic compounds.
In the 1970s’ Z. Dauter, A. Hempel and A. Konitz investigated crystal structures of biologically active compounds in the Crystallography Lab., Dept. of Chemistry, U. of Technology, Gdansk (J. Chojnacki, firstname.lastname@example.org). In 1995 W. Wojnowski established a laboratory for X-ray single crystal structure studies of inorganic and metallorganic compounds. Currently, X-ray crystal structures of metal complexes with ligands including low valent PP compounds and silicon-sulfur compounds are determined by J. Chojnacki and K. Baranowska and A. Konitz continues structure investigations of organic and metallorganic compounds.
In 1954, the Dept. of Solid State Chemistry was organized by W. Trzebiatowski at the Inst. of Theoretical and Physical Chemistry, Wroclaw U. Technology (I. Turowska-Tyrk, ilona email@example.com) and a single crystal study of BaO4TiO2 was completed by K. Lukaszewicz. Presently, T. Luty with his research group studies the dynamics of crystal lattices. I. Turowska-Tyrk studies structural changes in organic crystals during photochemical reactions and phase transitions and V. Videnova-Adrabinska (Dept. of Inorg. and Struc. Chem.) investigates inclusion compounds of molecular recognition, and organic crystal engineering.
The Lab. of X-ray Structural Analysis, Inst. of Physical Chemistry (PAN), Warsaw (J. Lipkowski, firstname.lastname@example.org) was founded by W. Wolfram in 1964 and has been led by J. Lipkowski since 1978. Research is focused on the study of heteromolecular complexes in which one of the components (the host) binds a variety of molecular species (the guests) in a selective and reversible manner. The ultimate goals of the research are the design of systems that selectively separate mixtures, activate chemical reactions, self assemble and transport specific molecules. Host systems with internal cavities of molecular dimensions (organic, zeolites, cyclodextrins, and calixarenes) involving H-bonds and other non-covalent bonding are under analysis. The physicochemistry and phase transitions structure dynamics of supramolecular complexes are studied over a temperature range of 80 to 400 K. The Laboratory head, J. Lipkowski, is presently the Vice President of the PAN and a member of Editorial Advisory Board of Central European J. of Chem. K. Suwinska manages the distribution of the IUCr Newsletter in Poland.
In1969, after post-doctoral study with J.D. Dunitz, T. Krajewski produced the first Polish integrated computer system for structure solution and refinement in the Crystallography Lab., Inst. of Organic Chemistry, PAN, Warsaw (Z. Urbanczyk-Lipkowska, email@example.com). The research team (P. Gluzinski, J. Krajewski, Z. Urbanczyk-Lipkowska) was engaged in conformational studies of mono- and disaccharides, structure - activity relationships of small biomolecules and application of molecular recognition in chemistry.
Chemical crystallography has also been studied in other Polish universities. In the early years crystallographic research in this area centered on organic compounds including acridine derivatives (Lab. of Crystallography, U. of Gdansk, A. Sikorski, art@chem. u.gda.pl), metal complexes and small organic molecules (Dept. of Crystallography, Copernicus U.,Torun, A. Wojtczak, awojt.@chem.uni.torun.pl), crystal structures and quantum chemistry studies of organic compounds (U. of Lodz, S. Grabowski, firstname.lastname@example.org). since 1987, organometallic compounds and neutron spectroscopic studies of hydrogen bonds in amino acids (Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw, J. Leciejewicz, email@example.com).
Since 1997 projects have focused on organic crystals, high-pressure studies, phase transitions, electron charge density, chemical reactivity, ferroelectrical, piezoelectrical and ferroelastic materials (U. of Opole, J. Zaleski, firstname.lastname@example.org), magnetic properties of metal alloys (U. of Silesia, Katowice, I. Okonska, email@example.com,pl), organic compounds with pharmaceutical activity including Cinchona alkaloids, and glucocorticosteroids, and polymorphism of new liquid crystal materials including cholesterol-containing dimers in collaboration with Wageningen U. in Holland (U. of Podlasie, Siedlce, Z. Karczmarzyk, firstname.lastname@example.org.).
Physical crystallography and crystal defects
In 1963, A. Oles began neutron diffraction investigations of crystal and magnetic structures, and phase transitions in crystals at the Stanislaw Staszic U. of Science and Technology, Krakow (J. Wolny, email@example.com).
A neutron diffractometer was constructed and mounted at the reactor in Swierk. The method of texture determination by neutron diffraction was worked out, and in 1976 A. Oles published the book Magnetic Structures Determined by Neutron Diffraction. Recent research areas include: solid state electronic structures (St. Kasprzyk), group theory analysis of crystal symmetry (W. Sikora), aperiodic systems (J. Wolny), and investigations of the mechanisms of plastic deformation (K. Wierzbanowski).
Research in the Dept. of Crystal Physics, U. of Silesia, Katowice (J. Warczewski, firstname.lastname@example.org) concerns crystalline and magnetic periodic and aperiodic structures, modulated and electronic structures, quasicrystals, and the magnetic properties, transport phenomena, mathematical analysis and theory of the condensed phase including chromium containing magnetic crystals having commensurate and incommensurate modulation.
Since 1968, magnetic, electric and transport properties of ionic perowskite, spinel crystals, metals and alloys have been investigated at low and high temperatures in the Dept. of Solid State Physics, U. of Silesia, Katowice (A. Ratuszna, email@example.com).
The main topics of study at X-ray Lab. of the Inst. of Atomic Energy, Swierk (K. Wieteska, firstname.lastname@example.org), a successor of the Inst. of Nuclear Research, are crystal lattice defects using X-ray topography, phase transitions in ceramics using powder diffraction, phase transitions in polycrystalline materials using electron microscopy and organic X-ray crystal structures.
Magnetic and spectroscopic properties of crystals and electronic charge density in crystals are studied in the Inst. of Experimental Phyics, U. of Bialystok, (L. Dobrzynski, email@example.com ). International conferences on polarized neutron scattering, high resolution Compton scattering as a probe of Fermiology and charge, spin and momentum density were organized by L. Dobrzynski.
Lattice defects in the single crystals applied in optoelectronics are investigated by J. Pajaczkowska and colleagues at the Inst. of Technology of Electronic Material (J. Pajaczkowska, pajacz.a.@itme.edu.pl).
At the Dept. of Macromolecular Physics, Adam Mickiewicz U., Poznan (M. Kozak, firstname.lastname@example.org), M. Kozak investigates structures of fibrous materials using the small-angle X-ray scattering and is currently studying the effect of cationic surfactants on the structure of phospholipidic systems.
The staff of the Lab. of X-ray Powder Diffraction and Spectrometry, Inst. of Physical Chemistry, PAN, Warsaw (Z. Kaszkur, zbig.@ichf.edu.pl) is engaged in phase determination and Rietveld refinement of high resolution powder diffraction data as well as dynamical and kinetic powder diffraction studies at variable temperature (up to 600ºC) and pressure. Quasi-amorphous materials are analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction and radial distribution function methods. Numerical methods for studying highly dispersed solids (transition metals) deposited on supports (SiO2, Al2O3) are developed including reliable background estimation data, smoothing procedures, and quantitative analysis for in situ studies. Recently, analytic tools allowing an insight into the structure and dynamics of nanocrystalline metallic particles in a chemical reaction have been developed. Violations of Bragg’s law and subtle changes in the peak intensity and width can be traced to nanocrystalline variations during chemical reactions. A similar approach has been used successfully for the analysis of concentration profiles for bimetallic nanoalloys modified by chemisorption of gasses.
In the Dept. of Powder Diffraction, Inst. of Low Temperature and Structure Research, PAN, Wroclaw (R. Kubiak, email@example.com) phthalocyaninato complexes with rare earth metals and their salts are synthesized and investigated by X-ray and electron diffraction methods. The synthesis of new cyanic derivatives including new sandwich–type metallodiphthalocyaninato complexes, investigation of their transformations and crystal structure determination are the specialty of the research group.
A semiconductor strip detector with a significantly increased rate of acquisition of powder diffraction data was constructed in Dept. of Physics and Applied Informatics, St. Staszic U. of Science and Technology, Krakow (A. Zieba) by a group led by A. Dabrowski. The detector was commercialized by Bruker – AXS under the name Lynx Eye.
X-ray powder methods are used by A. Mazurek and coworkers at the Central Forensic Lab. of Polish Police, Warsaw (A. Mazurek, firstname.lastname@example.org) for the identification of drugs, explosives, and unknown substances. The most effort is focused on analysis of trace samples found in clandestine amphetamine laboratories and amphetamine samples from the illegal drug market.
Powder X-ray diffraction methods are also used in the investigation of inorganic and organic materials in five other laboratories in Poland (Inst. of Material Engineering, Poznan U. of Technology; Dept. of Engineering & Polymer Technology, Wroclaw U.; Inst. of Material Engineering, Technical U. of Czestochowa; Dept. of Magnetochemistry, Fac. of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz U.; Inst. of Electronics, Wroclaw; Condensed Phase Physics Group, AGH U. of Science & Technology).
Crystal growth and liquid crystals
Other institutions engaged in studies of single crystal growth and epitaxial film technology include groups investigating the dependence of liquid crystalline properties on molecular mass at the Inst. of Physics, Lodz U. of Technology, Lodz (G. Derfel, email@example.com), defects in single crystals of pseudoperovskite at the Inst. of Electronic Materials Technology, Warsaw (A. Pajaczkowska, firstname.lastname@example.org), the influence of impurities on the kinetics of crystal growth and structural and electrical properties of amorphous alloys at the Inst. of Chemistry & Environmental Protection, Jan Dlugosz U., Czestochowa (M. Wieczorek), cubic nanocrystalline La2O3 in transmission electron microscopy at the Inst. of Low Temperature and Structural Research, PAN, Wroclaw (M. Malecka, M.Malecka@int.pan.wroc.pl), crystal growth from water solutions in a magnetic field at the Technical U. of Rzeszow (W. Proszak, email@example.com) low-temperature synthesis of garnet – powder luminofors of submicron dimensions at the Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw U. (E. Zych, firstname.lastname@example.org), crystal seeding, the kinetics of crystal growth, and influence of dopants on inorganic crystal growth at the Inst. of Physics, Lublin U. of Technology (K. Sangwal, email@example.com), and the modeling of the process of single crystal growth from solutions at the Dept. of Physics, Lodz U. of Technology (G. Derfel, firstname.lastname@example.org). Other research on liquid crystals, is being conducted at Lodz U. of Technology (P. Adamski, G. Derfel), Poznan U. of Technology (D. Bauman), Inst. of Molecular Physics, PAN (J. Jazdzyn, W. Kuczynski), U. of Podlasie (Z. Karczmarzyk), Warsaw U. (J. Przedmojski), and Jagiellonian U. (S. Urban).
Throughout the years, we’ve had visitors from Warsaw, Cracow, Gdansk, Torun, Wroclaw and Lodz in Poland, and from Prague, Halle, Lund, Vilnius, and Lviv. Several of those visits have resulted in lasting and fruitful collaborations. A regular visitor, C. Sansom (Birkbeck College, London) worked on our asparaginase project and was instrumental in the development of our teaching program. Specifically, there were very close connections between our institutions when Birkbeck was introducing their innovative internet courses on protein structure and crystallography. A number of our students graduated with Advanced Certificates, some with MSc from the U. of London. Two of our Indian postdoctoral fellows (A. Addlagatta and R. Thaimattam) were transmuted from smallmolecule-to macromolecular crystallographers while conducting high-caliber research on protein structure at atomic resolution. Currently, we have two candidates in a European Ph.D. program, H. Fernandes (Portugal) and O. Cakici (Turkey), a postdoctoral associate from Mexico (A. Hernandez-Santoyo) and a host of native students. A number of masters and doctoral degrees have been conferred in CBB. Sz. Krzywda brought a study of myoglobin variants from G. Dodson and A. Wilkinson in York. M. Kozak, now using SAXS for macromolecular studies at the Physics Dept. of the university wrote a thesis about antileukemic bacterial asparaginases. D. Borek, who discovered a new plant enzyme and its cousin in E. coli, and initiated a fascinating series of structural studies as a student is now in the Otwinowski Lab in Dallas, TX. R. Janowski who’s Ph.D. thesis concerned domain-swapped dimers in amyloidogenic cystatin C. is now working in the MTB structural genomics project at EMBL in Hamburg. J. Biesiadka determined the structure of proteins responding to pathogens in symbiotic plants. The project is now evolving towards hormone-binding plant proteins, while J. Biesiadka is busy with the structure of a photosystem in W. Saenger’s lab. at FU, Berlin.
We also have projects based on collaborations with Polish partners (Universities of Wroclaw, Gdansk) and foreign labs (U. of Lund). A. Wlodawer (another Polish compatriot) at the National Cancer Inst. (USA) has been the initial seed for our scientific growth and an inexhaustible source of support, and scientific inspiration. Our protein crystallographic work started in collaboration with Wlodawer, included studies of retroviral protease, retroviral integrase and an antileukemic amidohydrolase. After nearly 20 years this collaboration is very much alive. The Wlodawer lab has provided training in protein crystallography to a number of postdocs and associates from Poland including G. Bujacz, a Professor at the Tech. U. of Lodz, who also holds a part-time position at the CBB. He is Poland’s foremost asset in protein crystallization. During his visits to Poznan he supervises nearly all students’ crystallization projects.
Our research has been supported by grants from the State Committee for Scientific Research, Howard Hughes Medical Inst., and the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. Smaller grants have supported bilateral collaborations, like that with G. Desiraju in India. This collaboration is worth emphasizing because it reflects our efforts to treat macro- and small-molecule crystallography as one discipline. Initiated many years ago by the late M. Wiewiorowski - the founder of our Institute and a great advocate of biocrystallographic research in Poland, our studies into the unifying role of hydrogen bonding and other weak intermolecular interactions continue to be an exciting and evolving story.
Recently, the CBB has been reorganized to incorporate two new groups led by highly skilled specialists. In 2002, W. Rypniewski returned to Poland after receiving training in western laboratories at a time when he was entering the most creative period of his scientific career. Few scientists have the courage he has shown in resisting the brain drain to take on the challenge of working in “less privileged” regions. He has started a vigorous research program that includes determination of large macromolecular complexes and atomic resolution structures of proteins and nucleic acids. M. Sikorski heads the other new group doing protein expression and purification.
Other protein crystallography laboratories in Poland
After a post-doc in A. Wlodawer’s Lab, G. Bujacz started research in the field of protein crystallography at the Inst. of Technical Biochemistry, Lodz U. of Technology (M. Bujacz, email@example.com) and at CBB in Poznan. His achievements include crystal structure and mutational analysis of the cofactor-binding domain of the Cb1 trancriptional regulator, and an HIV protease complexes with inhibitors. He was an initiator of the Lodz U. of Technology award of doctors honoris causa to Alex Wlodawer (USA).
K. Lewinski and his research group investigate enzymatic mechanisms and inhibition of proteins in the Dept. of Crystal Chemistry and Crystal Physics, Jagiellonian U., Krakow (K. Lewinski, firstname.lastname@example.org). In collaboration with L. Lebioda (U. of South Carolina, USA) they determined the crystal structures of human prostatic acid phosphatase, enolase, glutaminase-asparginase, arylsulphatase A and formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase. Their field of research also includes crystallographic studies of ribonuclease A and its variants under ambient and high pressure conditions. K. Lewinski is the editor of the Bioorganic Crystal Chemistry section in the Central European Journal of Chemistry,
A. Wojtczak with his research group at the Dept. of Crystallography, Nicolaus Copernicus U., Torun (A. Wojtczak, awojt.@chem.uni.torun.pl) has solved protein crystal structures of human and rat transthyretin.
The Int’l Inst. of Molecular and Cell Biology, Max-Planck – PAN Joint Junior Research Group, Warsaw (M. Bochtler, email@example.com) was established in 2001 as a collaborative venture between the Polish Academy of Sciences and the German Max-Planck- Society. Its head, Matthias Bochtler (a former student of Robert Huber) is officially a Junior Group Leader in the Max-Planck-Inst. of Molecular and Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) in Dresden, but in practice he is on “loan” to IIMCB in Poland. With funding from the MPI in Dresden, the European Union, and Polish sources, M. Bochtler, has quickly established a dynamic and competitive group, which is almost exclusively Polish. Its short but impressive record of achievement includes discoveries in the area of new peptidases, endonuclease, nucleoside phosphorylases and their inhibitors. The Bochtler lab is advancing protein crystallography in Poland at the international level.
Polish crystallographers outside of Poland or anomalous scattering of multi-poles
(Z. Dauter, firstname.lastname@example.org)
It is quite remarkable how many Polish scientists scattered abroad are crystallographers, or especially protein crystallographers. “Scattered” is not a good word as many of us preserve close links, often involving the “old land”.
Already in the 1960’s and 70’s, several senior crystallographers had a vision to organize excellent schools and workshops where young disciples were taught by such authorities as Nikolay V. Belov, Yuri T. Struchkov, Mikhail A. Porai-Koshits, from Russia, Dorothy Hodgkin, Tom Blundell, Eleanor and Guy Dodson from the UK, Herbert Hauptman, Jerome and Isabella Karle, and Bill Duax from the USA, John Stezowski and Wolfram Saenger from Germany, Ivar Olovsson from Sweden, and Lodovico Riva di Sanseverino from Italy. We were in Poland a very happy crystallographic family with strong links to our “cousins” all over the world. We could learn good crystallography, but unfortunately in those days in Poland access to advanced computing was almost impossible and good X-ray facilities were scarce. It was virtually impossible to pursue protein crystallography.
The political difficulties of the 1980’s created additional problems. As a result, a number of Polish scientists decided to stay abroad and today we find many of them at senior positions in various institutions (Aleksander Roszak, U. of Glasgow, UK; Andrzej Joachimiak, Argonne Natl. Lab., USA; Andrzej M. Brzozowski, U. of York, UK; Boguslaw Stec, USA; Ewa Ciszak, NASA, USA; Ewa Skrzypczak-Jankun, Toledo, USA; Jacek Lubkowski, Zbigniew Dauter, Alex Wlodawer, NCI, USA; Krzysztof Appelt, pharmaceuticals, USA; Lukasz Lebioda, U. of S. Carolina, USA; Mirek Cygler, NRC, Canada; Pawel Dokurno, Ribotargets Ltd., UK; Pawel Grochulski, U. of Saskatchewan, Canada; Tadeusz Skarzynski, Glaxo-Wellcome, UK; Zbyszek Otwinowski, U. of Texas, USA; Zdzislaw Wawrzak, APS, USA; Zygmunt Derewenda, Wladek Minor, Michal Sabat, U. of Virginia, USA). In addition, there is a host of younger postdocs in virtually all places where crystallography is being done.
It is interesting that several of us have direct or indirect links to various synchrotron facilities. Alex Wlodawer participated (with Jim Phillips and Keith Hodgson) in the first ever synchrotron diffraction experiment on protein crystals at Stanford in 1975. Andrzej Joachimiak, who earlier worked at the Universities of Chicago and Yale, is now directing the Structural Biology Center and its synchrotron facility at Sector 19 of APS (Advanced Photon Source) at Argonne and heads the Midwest Center for Structural Genomics. Zbigniew Dauter served for ten years at the EMBL synchrotron outstation at DESY in Hamburg and now for the last eight years heads the Synchrotron Research Section of the National Cancer Inst., located first in Brookhaven and now at the Argonne synchrotron site. Zdzislaw Wawrzak after several years at the Hauptman-Woodward Inst. in Buffalo, since 1998 has been taking care of crystallographic activity at the DND (DuPont, Northwestern, Dow) Sector 5 of the APS synchrotron at Argonne. Pawel Grochulski, after a post at the NRC lab in Montreal, since 2000 is responsible for the construction and activity of the protein crystallography beamlines of the Canadian Light Source at Saskatoon. Last but not least, Zbyszek Otwinowski and Wladek Minor are the authors of the HKL2000 data processing suite, widely used at almost every synchrotron beamline.
As I said before, our younger years bring back very fond memories. But when I really think about it, we are still a very happy and closely knit community. This is why this note belongs in “Crystallography in Poland”.
Editors Note: As we did not have access to a full set of diacritical marks, they were omitted from proper names in the article.
Thank you to the many contributors of Crystallography in Poland:
Grzegorz Bujacz, Jaroslaw Chojnacki, Zbigniew Dauter, Jozef Garbarczyk, Mariusz Jaskolski, Zbigniew Karczmarzyk, Anna Koziol, Tadeusz Marek Krygowski, Janusz Leciejewicz, Maria Lefeld-Sosnowska, Krzysztof Lewinski, Eugeniusz Lagiewka, Barbara Oleksyn, Andrzej Oles, Jerzy Pielaszek, Izabela Sosnowska, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Kinga Suwinska, Katarzyna Slepokura, Ilona Turowska-Tyrk, Zofi a Urbanczyk-Lipkowska, Jerzy Warczewski, Michal Wieczorek, Andrzej Wlochowicz, Janusz Wolny, Marek Wolcyrz, Krzysztof Wozniak, Jacek Zaleski, Andrzej Zieba, Jozef Zmija,