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Three-dimensional chemical mapping by scanning transmission X-ray spectromicroscopy

J. Synchrotron Rad. (2007). 14, 395–402 [doi:10.1107/S0909049507029962]

[chemical mapping] Three-dimensional representations of polyacrylate (green) and polystyrene (gray scale) distributions. Microsphere diameter is approximately 800 nm.
By using angle-scan tomography in a scanning transmission X-ray microscope three-dimensional (3D) chemical mapping was demonstrated. Information from near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy at the oxygen edge was utilized to identify different chemical components in the sample. The technique is illustrated using mapping of a low density acrylate polyelectrolyte in and outside of polystyrene microspheres dispersed in water in a 4 μm diameter microcapillary. The 3D chemical visualization provides information about the microstructure that had not previously been observed in two dimensions.
G.A. Johansson, T. Tyliszczak, G.E. Mitchell, M.H. Keefe and A.P. Hitchcock