Crystallography around the world: Japan

National associations or societies

 日本結晶学会 | The Crystallographic Society of Japan
 日本鉱物科学会 | Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences

Japan

Science Council of Japan web page 

Category IV

Adhering Body

Science Council of Japan

Secretary of National Committee

M. TAKATA, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan

National Committee

M. TAKATA (Chair)
T. INOUE
M. KAMIMURA
K. KURIHARA
R. KURODA
Y. MORI
Y. NISHINO
M. OKUBE
Y. SUGAWARA
J. TAKAHARA

This information last updated: 26 Mar 2018

The following crystallographers in Japan are registered in the World Directory of Crystallographers.

(IUCr) crystallographers in Japan

563 entries found

  • Achiwa, Professor Norio Professor emeritus. Department of Physics, Kyushu University, -, 812, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Adachi, Mr Wataru Resercher. ---, Kanagawa, 214-0014, Kawasaki, Japan.
  • Aibara, Dr Shigeo Associate professor, retired. Division of Applied Life Science, Graduate School of Agriculture Kyoto University, Gokasho, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Akamatsu, Dr Tadashi Associate professor. Faculty of Education, Kochi University, 2-5-1 Akebono-cho, Kochi 780-8520, Japan.
  • Akao, Dr Masaru Associate professor, retired. Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 101-0062, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Akimoto, Professor Dr Koichi Professor. Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Japan Women's University, 2-8-1 Mejirodai, Bunkyo-ku, 112-8681, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Akimoto, Dr Toshio Associate Director, retired. Hyogo Science and Technology Association, 3-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo, 678-1205, Kamigouri-chou, Akou-gun, Japan.
  • Akitsu, Dr Takashiro Associate Professor. Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, -, 162-8601, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Al-Haq, Dr Muhammad Imran Researcher. Dr. M. Imran Al-Haq, Torii Lab, Department of Precision Engineering, Grad School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunky-ku, Tokyo, Japan 113-8656.
  • Amemiya, Professor Yoshiyuki Professor. Advanced Materials Science, Univ. of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, 277-8561, Chiba, Japan.
  • Ando, Professor Masami Professor. National Organization of High Energy Accelerator Science, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305-0801, Japan.
  • Ando, Mr Takashi Student. Department of Physics, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Tokyo, 112-8551, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.
  • Ando, Professor Yoshinori Emeritus Professor of Materials Science. Dep. of Materials Scie. & Engineering, Meijo University, 1-501 Shiogamaguchi, Tenpaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502, Japan.
  • Angkawidjaja, Dr Clement Researcher. Antibody Drug Discovery Laboratory, Evec, Inc., Sapporo Electronics Center, 1 Technopark Shimo-nopporo Atsubetsu-ku, Hokkaido, 0040015, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Aoki, Professor Katsuyuki Professor, retired. Department of Materials Science, Toyohashi Univ. of Technology, Tempaku-cho, 441, Toyohashi, Japan.
  • Arakawa, Professor Etsuo Professor. Physics, Tokyo Gakugei University, 4-1-1, Tokyo, 184-8501, Koganei, Japan.
  • Arita, Dr Kyohei Associate Professor. Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, -, -, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Asahi, Dr Takanao Professor. Department of Physics, Biology and Informatics, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi 753-8512, Japan.
  • Asahi, Dr Toru Professor. Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience (Asahi Lab.), Waseda University, Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku, 162-8480, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Ashida, Em. prof. Dr Tamaichi ?. Ohari 1-299, Meito-ku, 465, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Atake, Professor Tooru Professor emeritus, retired. Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Kanagawa, 226-8503, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Au, Dr Vonika Ka-Man Postdoctoral Fellow. Chemistry and Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, School of Engineering, -, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Bando, Dr Kyoko Kitamura -. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 16-1 Onogawa, Ibaraki, 305-8569, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Cantaert, Dr Bram Postdoctoral Research Fellow. The University of Tokyo, -, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Chai, Dr Yaw-Wang Researcher. School of Materials and Chemical Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta-cho Midori-ku Yokohama, Kanagawa, -, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Chatake, Dr Toshiyuki Post-doctoral research assistant. Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Shirakata-Shirane 2-4, Ibaraki, 319-1195, Tokai, Japan.
  • Chen, Dr Wei-tin Post-doctoral Researcher. Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji City, Japan.
  • Chikaura, Dr Yoshinori Professor, retired. Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fac. of Eng. Div. of Applied Physics Dept. of Materials Science Fac. of Engineering Sensui-cho Tobata-ku, 804, Kitakyushu, Japan.
  • Coruh, Mr Orkun Researcher. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Suita, -, Osake, Japan.
  • Costa Santos, Dr Edson Research fellow. Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744 Nishi-ku, Fukuoka, 8190395, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Daimon, Professor Dr Hiroshi Professor. Graduate School of Material Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Takayama 8916-5, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, Japan.
  • Dimov, Mr Nikolay Post-doctoral Fellow. Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering (Okada Lab), Kyushu University, -, -, Chikushi, Japan.
  • Fons, Dr Paul Research Group Leader. Center for Applied Near-Field Optics Research, National Institute for Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba Central 4, Ibaraki, 305-8568, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Foo, Dr Maw Lin Assistant Professor. Institute for Integrated Cell Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, -, Sakyo-ku, 606-8501, Yoshida, Japan.
  • Fujihara, Dr Takashi Associate Professor. Comprehensive Analysis Center for Science, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo 255, Saitama, 338-8570, Sakura-ku, Japan.
  • Fujihashi, Dr Masahiro Postdoctoral Fellow. Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, 606-8502, Jyoto, Japan.
  • Fujii, Dr Kotaro postdoctoral fellow. Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, H-62,12-1, Ookayama 2, Meguro-ku, 152-8551, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Fujii, Dr Satoshi Professor. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422, Japan.
  • Fujii, Dr Tomomi Instructor. Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Fujii, Dr Yoshikazu Associate professor. Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkoudai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657, Japan.
  • Fujimoto, Professor Dr Kenjiro Department or Pure and Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Chiba, 278-8510, Noda, Japan.
  • Fujimoto, Dr Zui Researcher. Biomolecular Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 2-1-2 Kannondai, Ibaraki, 305, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Fujisawa, Professor Kiyoshi Professor of Chemistry. College of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512, Japan.
  • Fujishita, Professor Hideshi Professor. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan.
  • Fujiwara, Professor Dr Akihiko Professor. Department of Nanotechnology for Sustainable Energy, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Hyogo, 669-1337, Sanda, Japan.
  • Fukami, Ms Reiko student of master course. Department of Materials science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Tokyo, 125-8585, Katsushika-ku, Japan.
  • Fukami, Dr Takaaki A. Researcher. Discovery Research, Chugai Pharmaceutical, -, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Fukami, Dr Toshiro Professor. Molecular Pharmaceutics, Meiji Pharamceutical University, Kiyose, 204-8588, Toyko, Japan.
  • Fukao, Professor Koji Professor. Physical Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Fukuhara, Dr Akira Senior consulting scientist, retired. Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi Ltd., Hatoyama, 350-03, Saitama, Japan.
  • Fukuoka, Dr Hiroshi assistant professor. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 1-4-1 Kagamiyama, Japan, 739-8527, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Fukuyama, Professor Keiichi Professor. Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.
  • Furuike, Mr Yoshihiko Assistant Professor. Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi, Japan, 558-8585, Osaka, Japan.
  • Furuya, Mr Noritaka resarcher. 4365-1, Kashiwabara, Hotaka, Nagano pref., 399-8304, Azumino city, Japan.
  • Fushinobu, Dr Shinya Assistant Professor. Shinya Fushinobu, Department of Biotechnology, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, JAPAN.
  • Futagami, Dr Koji President, retired. Academic Office, Miyazaki University, Gakuenkibanadai Nishi 1-1, Miyazaki 889-21, Japan.
  • Goto, Dr Masaru Postdoctoral Fellow. Biochemistry, Osaka Medical College, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, 558-8585, Sumiyoshi-ku Osaka City, Japan.
  • Gotoh, Dr Yoshito Senior research staff. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Higashi 1-1-1, Tsukuba, 305-8565, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Griffin, Dr Alexandra Global Product Manager for Small Molecule Crystallography. Rigaku Corporation, -, -, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Gu, Dr Xinfu Researcher. Institute for materials research, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aobaku, Miyagi, 9800812, Sendai, Japan.
  • Guo, Mr Lin-jun Student. Laboratory of Structural Biology and Food Biotechnology, Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8657, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Guzman Afonso, Dr Maria Candelaria Postdoctoral researcher. Advanced Solid-State NMR Unit, RIKEN-CLST Collaboration Center, W121, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Hagiya, Dr Kenji Research Associate. Department of Life Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Koto 3-2-1, Hyogo, 678-1297, Kamigori, Akogun, Japan.
  • Hakoshima, Professor Dr Toshio Professor. Toshio Hakoshima, PhD, Professor of Structural Biology, Structural Biology Laboratory, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, JAPAN.
  • Hamada, Dr Kensaku Associate professor. Interdisciplinary Faculty of Science and Engineering, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu, Matsue 690, Japan.
  • Harada, Ms Ayaka Student. 1-1, Oho, JAPAN, 3050801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Harada, Professor Jimpei Managing director and Professor emeritus of Nagoya U.. X-ray Research Laboratory, Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12 Matsubara-choAkishima, 196, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Harada, Dr Jun Associate Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, 0600810, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Harada, Dr Kazumasa Associate professor. Department of Radiology, Komazawa Junior College, 1-23-1 Komazawa, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 154-8525, Japan.
  • Harada, Dr Shigeharu Associate professor. Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, 606-8585, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Harada, Professor Yoshihisa Associate Professor. 1-490-2 Koto, Shingu, 679-5165, Tatsuno, Hyogo, Japan.
  • HASHIMOTO, Professor Dr HIROSHI Faculty. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Shizuoka, Japan.
  • Hashimoto, Professor Dr Hatsujiro Professor emeritus. Mechanical Engineering, Okayama University of Science, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama, 700, Ridai-cho 1-1, Japan.
  • Hashimoto, Professor Masato Professor, Inorganic and Coordination Chemistry. Material Science and Chemistry, Wakayama University, 930 Sakaedani, 640-8510, Wakayama, Japan.
  • Hashimoto, Professor Shinya Professor. Department of Materials Science, College of Science and Engneering, Iwaki Meisei University, Iino, Chuohdaai, Iwaki, Fukushima 970, Japan.
  • Hashizume, Dr Daisuke Unit Leader. Materials Characterization Support Unit, RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan.
  • Hashizume, Professor Hiroo Professor. Nakagami 2-7-23, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0022, Japan.
  • Hata, Dr Tadashi Senior Chief Researcher. Biomedical Research Laboratories, Sankyo Co., Ltd., 1-2-58, hiromachi, 140-8710, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Hata, Professor Dr Yasuo Professor, retired. Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Hatakeyama, Dr Tomomitsu Professor. Graduate School of Engineering, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-machi, 852-8521, Nagasaki, Japan.
  • Hatsui, Dr Takaki Team Leader. SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1, Koto, Sayo-cho, 679-5148, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Hattori, Dr Takanori assistant researcher. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, 223-8522, JAPAN.
  • Hayakawa, Professor Dr Yasuhiro Professor. Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University Johoku 3-5-1 Hamamatsu, 432-8011, Shizuoka, Japan.
  • Hayase, Dr Shuichi Research associate. Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Tottori University, Koyama, Tottori 680, Japan.
  • Hayashi, Professor Koya Professor. Lab. for Advanced Material Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, 700, Okayama, Japan.
  • HIBI, Dr Takao Professor. Bioscience, Fukui prefectural University, Matsuoka-Kenjyoujima 4-1-1, Yoshida-gun, Fukui, Japan, 910-1195, Eiheiji-cho, Japan.
  • Higuchi, Dr Taichi Lecturer. Faculty of Engineering, Kansai University, Yamate-cho 3-3-35, Suita, Osaka 564, Japan.
  • Higuchi, Dr Yoshiki Professor. Department of Life Science, Graduate School of Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Koto,Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo, Japan.
  • Hirabayashi, Dr Kei Project Assistant Professor. Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Tokyo, 113-8657, Bunkyo-ku, Japan.
  • Hirabayashi, Professor Makoto Em. Professor of Tohoku University. Kami-otiai 2-11-7-806, 338-0001, Saitama, Japan.
  • Hirayama, Professor Noriaki Professor. Basic Medical Science and Molecular Medicine, Tokai University School of Medicine, 143 Shimokasuya, Kanagawa, 259-1193, Isehara, Japan.
  • Hirotsu, Professor Ken Professor. Ken Hirotsu, RIKEN Harima Institute, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-cho, Hyougo, 679-5148 Japan.
  • Hirotsu, Dr Yoshihiko Professor. The Institute of Scientific and Indutrial Research, Osaka Univesity Mihogaoka 8-1 Ibaraki, 567-0047, Osaka, Japan.
  • Hisano, Dr Tamao Theoretical Structural Biology Laboratory, RIKEN Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Koto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148, Mikazuki-cho, Japan.
  • Honda, Dr Takashi Assistant Professor. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 203-1 Shirane Shirakata, Ibaraki, 319-1106, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Japan.
  • Honma, Mr Takahiro Master course student. Division of applied physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Hoque, Mr Mahfuzul Student. Chemistry and Biotechnology, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai, Kanagawa, 2400067, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Horiuchi, Dr Shigeo Director, retired. National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Namiki 1-1 Tsukuba, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Hosoya, Professor Masahiko Professor, retired. Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Senbaru-1, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan.
  • Hu, Dr Wen Beamline Scientist. Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1-1-1 Koto, 679-5148, Sayo, Hyogo, Japan.
  • Ichiyama, Dr Susumu assistant. Faculty of Science, Gakushuin University, 1-5-1 Mejiro, Tokyo, 171-8588, Toshima-ku, Japan.
  • Ida, Dr Takashi Professor. Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Asahigaoka 10-6-29, Gifu, 507-0071, Tajimi, Japan.
  • Igarashi, Professor Kiyohiko Associate Professor. Department of Biomaterial Sciences, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8657, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Igarashi, Dr Noriyuki Research associate. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Iida, Professor Atsuo Professor. Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organisation, 1-1 O-ho, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Iijima, Professor Takao Professor, retired. Department of Chemistry, Gakushuin University, Toshima-ku, 171, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Iishi, Professor Dr Kazuake Professor, retired. Department of Earth Sciences, Yamaguchi University, Faculty of Science Yoshida 1677-1, 753, Yamaguchi, Japan.
  • Ikeda-Saito, Professor Masao Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Ikemizu, Dr Shinji Associat\_professor. Structural Biology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, 862-0973, Kumamoto, Japan.
  • Imoto, Dr Hideo Professor emeritus. Hoshigaoka 1-5-10, Utsunomiya, Tochigi-ken 320-0038, Japan.
  • imura, Mr hiroyuki 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Inaba, Dr Akira Associate professor. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-cho 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560, Japan.
  • Inoue, Dr Tsuyoshi Associate Professor. Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
  • Inukai, Mr Manabu Researcher. Physical Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, -, 466-8555, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Irie, Dr Katsumasa Assistant Professor. Cellular and Structural Physiology Institute, Nagoya University, Chikusa, 464-8601, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Irokawa, Dr Katsumi Research assistant. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Science University of Tokyo, Yamazaki 2641, Noda-shi, Chiba 278, Japan.
  • Ishibashi, Dr Hiroki Assistant Professor. Department of Materials Science, College of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Gakuen-cho 1-1, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.
  • Ishibashi, Professor Yoshihiro Professor. Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.
  • Ishida, Professor Dr Hidenobu Professor. Department of Management and Information Science, Fukui university of Technology, 3-6-1,Gakuen, Fukui, 910-8505, Fukui, Japan.
  • Ishida, Dr Hiroyuki Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Tsushimanaka 3-1-1, Okayama 700, Japan.
  • Ishida, Professor Toshimasa Professor, retired. Lab. Physical Chemistry, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-11, Japan.
  • Ishigaki, Professor Dr Toru Professor. Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University, 162-1 Shirakata, Ibaraki 319-1106, Tokai, Naka, Japan.
  • Ishii, Dr Minoru Associate professor. Laboratory of Chemistry, Department of Education, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata-shi, Yamagata 990, Japan.
  • Ishikawa, Dr Tetsuya Director. RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan.
  • Ishizawa, Professor Dr Nobuo professor. Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Asahigaoka, Tajimi 507-0071, Japan.
  • Ishizuka, Dr Kazuo Director. HREM Research Inc., 14-48 Matsukazedai, Saitama, 355-0055, Higashimatsuyama, Japan.
  • Ito, Dr Kazuki Researcher. X-ray Analysis Division, Rigaku Corp., 3-9-12 Matsubara-cho, Tokyo, 196-8666, Akishima-shi, Japan.
  • Ito, Dr Kosuke Assistant professor. Department of Biology, Niigata university, 8050, Ikarashi 2-no-cho, Nishi-ku, 950-2181, Niigata, Japan.
  • Ito, Professor Dr Masatoki retired. Chemistry Department, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kanagawa, 223-8522, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Ito, Professor Tetsuzo Professor, retired. Prof. T. Ito, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Kanagawa Inst. of Technology, Atsugi,Kanagawa 243-0292,Japan.
  • Ito, Dr Yukio Senior engineer, retired. Research & Development Center, Hitachi Medical Corporation, Shintoyofuta 2-1, Chiba, 277, Kashiwa-shi, Japan.
  • Itoh, Professor Yoshiaki Emeritus Professor. The Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 4-6-7 Minami-Azabu, Minato-ku, 106, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Iwamoto, Professor Toschitake Professor emeritus. Department of Environmental Science, Iwaki Meisei University, College of Science and Engineering, 970-8551, Fukushima, Japan.
  • Iwasaki, Professor Fujiko Professor emeritus (2003). Dept. of Applied Physics and Chemistry, The Univ. of Electro-Communications, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan.
  • Izumi, Dr Yasuo Associate Professor. Graduate School of Science, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage-ku, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan.
  • JIANG, Mr JIANDONG student. Science and Engineering, Iwaki-Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Fukusima, 81-970-8551, Iwaki, Japan.
  • Kai, Professor Dr Yasushi Professor. Department of Environmental and Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University of Technology, Gakuen 3-6-1, Fukui, Fukui 910-8505, Japan.
  • Kajiwara, Dr Kentaro Associate Senior Scientist. Riken Spring-8 Center, 1-1-1, Kouto, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Kakimoto, Professor Koichi Associate professor. Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-Koen, 816-8580, Kasuga, Japan.
  • Kakuta, Professor Dr Yoshimitsu associate professor. Agriculture, Kyusyu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8581, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Kamimura, Dr Midori Teijin Pharma Limited. 4-3-2 Asahigaoka, Tokyo, 191-8512, Hino, Japan.
  • Kamitori, Professor Shigehiro Associate Professor. Life Science Research Center, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Kagawa, 761-0793, Miki-cho, Kita-gun, Japan.
  • Kamiya, Dr Nobuo Senior Scientist. RIKEN Harima Institute / SPring-8, 1-1-1, Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo, 679-5148, Japan.
  • Kamiyama, Professor Dr Takashi Prof.. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1, Oho, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • KANAZAWA, Mr Hiroki Student. science and technology, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Tokyo, 102-8554, Chiyoda-ku, Japan.
  • Kanehisa, Dr Nobuko Research associate. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan.
  • Kaneko, Dr Fumitoshi Lecturer. Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama 1-1, Toyonaka, Osaka 560, Japan.
  • Kaneko, Professor Tsutomu Professor. Prof. Tsutomu KANEKO, Department of Applied Physics, Science Univ. of Tokyo, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601, JAPAN.
  • Kanke, Dr Yasushi Senior researcher. Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Kanzaki, Professor Masami Professor. Institute for Study of the Earth's Interior, Okayama University, 827 Yamada, Misasa, Tottori 682-0193, Japan.
  • KASATANI, Professor Hirofumi Professor. Materials and Life Science, Shizuoka Institute of Science and Technology, 2200-2 Toyosawa, Shizuoka, 437-8555, Fukuroi, Japan.
  • Kashida, Dr Shoji Professor, retired. Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Ikarashi 8050, Niigata, Japan.
  • Kashino, Professor Setsuo Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Tsushima, Okayama 700, Japan.
  • Katakawa, Dr Jun'ichi assistant professor. Pharmaceutical sciences, Setsunan University, 45-1, Hirakata, Osaka, 573-0101, Nagaotoge-cho, Japan.
  • Kataoka, Dr Mikio Associate professor. Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560, Japan.
  • Katayanagi, Dr Katsuo Associate professor. Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Hiroshima, 739-8526, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Kato, Professor Hiroaki Professor. Structural Biology, Kyoto University of Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 46-29, Yoshida-Shimoadachi, Kyoto, 606-8501, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Kato, Dr Kenichi Research Scientist. Structural Materials Science Laboratory, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Katsuya, Dr Yoshio Engineer. National Institute for Material Science, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Koto, 679-5148, Sayo-cho,Sayo, Hyogo, Japan.
  • Kawaguchi, Dr Shogo Research Scientist. Research & Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Kawaguchi, Mr Tomoya Student. Materials science and engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshidahonmachi, Butsurikei bldg. 526, Kyoto-fu, 606-8501, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Japan.
  • Kawahara, Dr Akira Professor. Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama 700, Japan.
  • Kawai, Professor Jun Professor. Prof. Jun Kawai, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.
  • Kawaminami, Dr Masaru Professor, retired. Department of Physics, Kagoshima University, Faculty of Science Kohrimoto 1-21-35, 890-0065, Kagoshima, Japan.
  • Kawanaka, Dr Hirofumi Research Scientist. Kawanaka Hirofumi, Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, AIST Tsukuba central 2, 1-1-1, Umezono,Tsukuba, 305-8568 Japan.
  • Kawano, Professor Shigeaki Professor. Department of Humanities, Faculty of Humanities, Kyushu Lutheran College, Kurokami 3-12-16, 860, Kumamoto, Japan.
  • Kawano, Dr Yoshiaki Research Scientist. Yoshiaki Kawano, Ph.D., Senior Technical Scientist, RIKEN/SPring-8 Center, SR Life Science Instrumetaion Unit, Research Instruction Group, Advanced Photon Technology Division, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148, JAPAN, Phone: +81-791-58-2839, Fax: +81-791-58-2834.
  • Khakurel, Mr Krishna Prasad Researcher. Research Institute for electronic science, Kita 21 Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0021, Japan.
  • Kifune, Professor Dr Kouichi Lecturer. Physics, Hiroshima Institute of Technology, -, -, -, Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Kihara, Professor Dr Kuniaki Professor, retired. Department of Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Faculty of Science Kakuma-machi Kanazawa, 920-1192, Kanazawa, Japan.
  • Kikuta, Professor Seishi Professor Emeritus. Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, School of EngineeringHongo 7-3-1Bunkyo-ku, 113, Tokyo, Japan.
  • KIM, Mr BYUNG-SOON PhD student. Graduate School of Environmental and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-7, Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, 240-8501, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Kim, Mr Younghun Student. Structural Materials Science Laboratory, 214 Synchrotron Radiation Physics Facility, Hyogo, 679-5148, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Kimura, Dr Masao Senior researcher. Masao KIMURA, Materials Characterization Res. Lab., Adv. Tech. Res. Labs., Nippon Steel Co., 20-1 Shintomi, Futtsu, Chiba 293-8511, JAPAN.
  • Kimura, Dr Shigeru Group Leader. Research & Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Res. Inst., 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo, Japan.
  • Kimura, Dr Yuki Associate Professor. Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, Kita-19, Nishi-8, 060-0819, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Kinoshita, Dr Takayoshi Associate Professor. Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Osaka, 599-8531, Sakai, Japan.
  • Kita, Dr Akiko Research associate. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
  • Kita, Mr Shunsuke student. kitaku kita21nishi11, 0010021, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Kitadokoro, Professor Dr Kengo Associate Professor. Matsugasakigoshokaidou-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Kyoto Institute of Technology.
  • Kitagawa, Dr Yasuyuki Associate professor. School of Phamaceutical Sciences, Showa University, Hatanodai 1-5-8, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan.
  • Kitahama, Dr Katsuki Research associate, retired. Department of Atom Scale Science, Division of Advanced Materials and Technology, The Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki 567, Japan.
  • Kitahara, Mr Koichi Student. Kiban-toh 502, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8561, Japan.
  • Kitamura, Dr Hideo researcher. Harima Institute, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Kouto 1-1-1, Hyogo, 679-5148, Mikazuki-cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Kitamura, Dr Mitsutaka Manager. Dr. Mitsutaka Kitamura, Laboratory for Control of Polymorphism, 665-7, Minamikume-cho, Matsuyama city, 790-0924, Japan.
  • Kitano, Dr Ken Assistant Professor. Structural Biology, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Nara, 630-0192, Ikoma, Japan.
  • Kitano, Professor Yasuyuki Professor emeritus. National Institute of Advanced Industrial Sci. & Tech., Kansai-centre, 732-0012, Osaka, Japan.
  • Kitazawa, Professor Dr Takafumi Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Toho University, Miyama 2-2-1, Funabashi, Chiba 274, Japan.
  • Kiyotani, Ms Tamiko Assistant Professor. Showa Pharmaceutical University, Higashi-tamagawagakuen, Machida, Tokyo, 194-8543, Machida, Japan.
  • Kobayashi, Professor Dr Akiko Professor. Chemistry, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-Ku, 156-8550, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kobayashi, Dr Hayao Professor emeritus. Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji Okazaki, 444, Aichi, Japan.
  • Kobayashi, Dr Jinzo Counsellor. JASCO Corporation, Ishikawa-cho 2967-5, Hachioji-shi, 192, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Koga, Dr Kenji Principal researcher. Dr. K. Koga, NRI, AIST, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, JAPAN.
  • Kohno, Dr Atsushi Professor. Department of Applied Physics, Fukuoka University, 8-19-1 Nanakuma, Jounan-ku, Fukuoka 814-0180, Japan.
  • Kojima, Professor Seiji Associate professor. Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Kojima, Dr Yuko 1000 Kamoshida-cho, Aoba-ku, 227-8502, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Komatsu, Professor Hiroshi Professor Emeritus. Inst. for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ., Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980, Japan.
  • Komatsu, Dr Kazuki The University of Tokyo. Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Tokyo, 1130033, Bunkyoku, Japan.
  • Komori, Professor Dr Hirofumi Associate Professor. Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, 1-1 Saiwai-cho, Takamatsu, Kagawa, 760-8522 JAPAN.
  • Komura, Professor Dr Shigehiro Emeritus Professor of Hiroshima U.(since 1997). Dr. Shigehiro KOMURA, Wakamiya 2-5-7, Nakano-ku, Tokyo, 165-0033, Japan.
  • Komura, Professor Yukitomo Emeritus professor. 1-6-33 Ajinadai, Hatsukaichi, 738, Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Kondo, Dr Hidemasa Post-doctoral research assistant. Department of Biochemistry and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku University, Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-77, Japan.
  • Kondo, Dr Jiro Associate Professor. Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, 102-8554, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Konno, Dr Michiko Professor. Ochanomizu University, Department of Chemistry, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8610, Japan.
  • Koto, Professor Kichiro Professor. Fac. Integ. Arts and Sci., Tokushima Univ., Minami-Josanjima 1-1, Tokushima 770, Japan.
  • Kouyama, Professor Tsutomu Professor. Physics, Graduate school of sience, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Aichi, 464-8602, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Koyano, Ms Kazuo Senior researcher. Koyano Research Laboratory Midorigaoka 2-2-9 Meguro-ku, 152-0034, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kubota, Professor Dr Yoshiki Professor. Department of Physical Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Osaka, 599-8531, Sakai, Japan.
  • Kuchitsu, Professor Kozo Professor Emeritus. Department of Chemistry, Tokyo University, -, -, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kudoh, Professor Dr Yasuhiro Emeritus professor at Tohoku University. 54 Aza Mimidori, Iwate, 028-3324, Shiwa-chyo, Japan.
  • Kumarevel, Dr Thirumananseri Senior Research Scientist. RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo-ken, 679-5148, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Kumasaka, Dr Takashi Director. Protein Crystal Analysis Division, SPring-8/JASRI, 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo, Japan.
  • Kurisaki, Dr Tsutomu Research associate. Department of Chemistry, Fukuoka University, Nanakuma 8-19-1, 814-0180, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Kurisu, Dr Genji Professor. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, Yamada-oka 3-2, Osaka, 565-0871, Suita, Japan.
  • Kuroda, Professor Dr Reiko Professor. Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Noda, 278-8510, Chiba, Japan.
  • Kuroiwa, Dr Yoshihiro Research associate. Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi, -, Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Kurumaji, Dr Takashi university. 7-3-1, 113-8656, Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Japan.
  • Kusaba, Dr Keiji Associate Professor. Materials Science, Nagoya University, -, 464-8603, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Kusaka, Dr Katsuhiro JSPS Research Fellow. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High energy accelerator research organization, Oho 1-1, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Kusunoki, Professor Dr Masami professor. Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-37, Takeda, Yamanashi, Japan, 400-8510, Kofu City, Japan.
  • KUZE, Dr Satoru research associate. Tsukuba Research Laboratory, SUMITOMO CHEMICAL Co., Ltd., 6 KITAHARA, IBARAKI, 300-3294, Tsukuba-city, Japan.
  • Lapointe, Mr Sebastien Ph.D Student. Coordination Chemistry and Catalysis Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Okinawa, 904-0495, Onna, Japan.
  • Lee, Dr Sanghyun Post doctor. KEK, 203-1 Shirakata, 319-1106, Tokaimura, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Liss, Dr Klaus-Dieter Senior Research Fellow. Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1195, Tokai-mura, Japan.
  • Machida, Dr Shinichi Beamline scientist. PLANET (BL11), Neutron R&D, CROSS Tokai, IQBRC Bldg, Tokai, Naka, 319-1106, 162-1 Shirakata, Japan.
  • maenaka, Professor katsumi professor. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-6, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, 060-0812, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Maita, Dr Nobuo Associate Professor. Institute of Enzyme Research, Tokushima University, 3-18-15, Kuramotocho, Tokushima, 770-8503, Tokushima, Japan.
  • Marukawa, Professor Kenzaburo Professor emeritus of Hokkaido University. Dept. Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita-13 Nishi-8, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.
  • Marumo, Professor Fumiyuki Professor (retired 2001). Oiso-machi, Oiso 916-1, Naka-gun, Kanagawa 255-0003, Japan.
  • Mashiyama, Professor Hiroyuki Professor (retired March 2012). Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamaguchi University, Yoshida 1677-1, Yamaguchi 753-8512, Japan.
  • Masuda, Professor Hideki Professor. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466, Japan.
  • Masuda, Dr Tetsuya Assistant Professor. Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, -, -, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Matsuda, Professor Dr Tomoko Professor. Department of Bioengineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Kanagawa, 226-8501, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Matsugaki, Dr Naohiro Assistant Professor. -, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Matsui, Professor Dr Masanori Professor, retired. Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Kouto, Kamigori, Hyogo, 678-1297, Akogun, Japan.
  • Matsui, Dr Takashi Assistant Professor. Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama, 930-0194, Toyama, Japan.
  • Matsui, Dr Toshiro Vice Directer. Toshiro Matsui Lab, Toshiba Inc., 3-4-24 Higasihongou Midoriku, Kanagawa, 226-0002, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Matsui, Dr Yoshio Director. Advanced Electron Microscopy Group, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Japan.
  • Matsui, Dr Yoshito Emeritus Professor, Okayama U.. 3-24-5 Shibakubo, Tanashi, Tokyo, 188-0014, Japan.
  • Matsumiya, Dr Shigeki Researcher. Fuji Research Park, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., 1188 Shimotogari, Shizuoka, 411-8731, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Japan.
  • Matsumoto, Dr Akikazu Associate Professor. Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka, 558-8585, Osaka, Japan.
  • Matsumoto, Dr Masakazu Professor. Tsushimanaka, Okayama, 700-8530 JAPAN.
  • Matsumoto, Dr Shinya Lecturer. Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Education and Human Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-2 Tokiwadai, Yokohama, 240-8501, Hodogaya-ku, Japan.
  • Matsumoto, Professor Takeo Emeritus Professor of Kanazawa University. Tsutisimizu 2-77 Kanazawa, 920-0955, Ishikawa, Japan.
  • Matsumura, Dr Hiroyoshi Professor. Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577, JAPAN.
  • Matsumura, Dr Syo Professor. Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Higashi-ku, 812-8581, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Matsuno, Dr Shin-ya Group Leader. Analysis and Simulation Lab., Asahi KASEI Co., 2-1, Samejima, Fuji, 416-8501, JAPAN.
  • Matsushima, Professor Dr Masaaki professor, retired. Nursing and Rehabilitation, Aino University, 4-5-4 HIgashiohda, Osaka, 567-0012, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Matsushima, Professor Norio Professor. School of Health Sciences, Sapporo Medical University, Minami 3, Nishi 17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060, Japan.
  • Matsushita, Mr Akifumi student. Materials science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, okamoto shigeru lab, gokiso-cho, showa-ku, Aichi, 466-8555, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Matsushita, Dr Nobuyuki Professor. Department of Chemistry, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 171-8501, Toshima-ku, Japan.
  • Matsushita, Dr Yoshitaka Researcher. National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Beamline BL15XU, SPring-8, NIMS-branch office, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo 679-5148, Japan.
  • Matsuura, Dr Yoshiki Associate professor, retired. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka Suita, 565, Osaka, Japan.
  • matsuura, Professor Dr makoto teacher, retired. mathematics and natural science, Miyagi National College of Technology, Nodayama, Miyagi, 981-1239, Natori, Japan.
  • Matsuzaki, Dr Takao Independent Drug Design Advisor. Independent Drug Design Advisor, 2007-1-404 Uchikoshi, Tokyo, 192-0911, Hachioji, Japan.
  • Miao, Mr Ping Ph.D candidate. 203-1 Shirakata, Ibaraki-ken, 3191106, Toka, Japan.
  • Michiue, Dr Yuichi senior researcher. Quantum Beam Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Miida, Professor Rokuro Professor. Electronic Systems Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Suwa, 5000-1 Toyohira, Nagano, 391-0292, Chino, Japan.
  • Mikami, Professor Bunzo Professor. Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Division of Applied Life Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011.
  • Miki, Professor Dr Kunio Professor. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.
  • Minoda, Hiroki Research professor. Applied Physics, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, 184-8588, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Mitsuoka, Dr Kaoru Team Leader. Biomedicinal Research Center, National Institute of Avanced Industrial Sience and Technology, 2-3-26, Aomi, Koto-ku, Japan, 135-0064, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Miura, Keiko Beamline scientist. Life & Environmental Research Division (BL1982), Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo, Japan.
  • Miyamae, Dr Hiroshi Associate professor. Department of Chemistry, Josai Univ., Keyakidai, 1-1 Sakado-shi, 350-02, Saitama, Japan.
  • Miyano, Professor Dr Masashi Professor. Masashi Miyano, Professor, Dept Chem. & Biol. Sci., Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Fuchinobe 5-10-1, Sagamihara, Chuo-ku, Kanagawa 252-5258, Japan.
  • Miyano, Toshio Associate professor. Department of Science, Maizuru National College of Technology, Shiraya 234 Maizuru, Kyoto, 625-8511, Maizuru, Japan.
  • Miyata, Professor Mikiji Professor. Department of Material and Life science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Yamadaoka 2-1, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
  • Miyawaki, Dr Ritsuro Senior Curator. Ritsuro Miyawaki, Div. Mineral Sci., Dept. Geol., Nat'l. Mus. Nat. Sci., 3-23-1, Hyakunin-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0073, JAPAN.
  • Miyazaki, Mr Yoshinobu Student. Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5 Kiban-toh 502, Chiba, 277-8561, Kashiwa, Japan.
  • Mizohata, Mr Eiichi Assistant Professor. Division of Applied Chemisty, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Osaka, 565-0871, Suita, Japan.
  • Mizuguchi, Professor Jin Professor. Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-2, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240, Japan.
  • Mizuno, Dr Hiroshi Principal Researcher. Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Kannondai 2-1-2, Ibaraki, 305-8602, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Mizuno, Mr Hitoshi Ph.D.Student. Graduate School of Materials Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Nara, 630-0192, Ikoma, Japan.
  • Mizushima, Professor Tsunehiro Professor. Life Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1, Kouto, Kamigori-cho, 678-1297, Hyogo, Japan.
  • Mizutani, Professor Dr Ryuta Professor. Dept of Applied Biochemistry, Sch of Engineering, Tokai Univ, Kitakaname 4-1-1, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292, Japan.
  • Mohri, Mr Fumihito Senior researcher. Electronics Laboratory, KANEKA Corporation, Torikai-nishi,5-1-1, Osaka-fu, 566-0072, Setsu, Japan.
  • Momma, Dr Koichi Researcher. Department of Geology and Paleontology, National Museum of Nature and Science, 4-1-1, Amakubo, Ibaraki, 305-0005, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Momose, Professor Atsushi Professor. 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research, Tohoku University, Prof. Dr. Atsushi Momose.
  • Mori, Dr Hiroshi Associate professor. Department of Earth Sciences, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, 790, Matsuyama, Japan.
  • Mori, Mr Takahiro Tokyo University of Science. Materials of Science Technorogy, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Chiba, 278-8510, Noda, Japan.
  • Moriga, Professor Toshihiro Professor. Chemical Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Tokushima, Minami-Josanjima 2-1, 770, Tokushima, Japan.
  • Morikawa, Professor Kosuke Research director. Department of Structural Biology, Biomolecular Engineering Research Institute, 6-2-3 Furuedai, Osaka, Japan, 565-0874, Suita, Japan.
  • Morimoto, Professor Dr Yukio Professor. Division of Quantum Beam Material Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494, JAPAN.
  • Morinaga, Professor Masahiko Professor. Nagoya University, -, 464-01, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Motoo, Dr Shiro Chief scientist. X-ray Research Laboratory, Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12 Matsubara-cho, Akishima, 196, Tokyo, Japan.
  • MUGO, Mr ANDREW POST GRADUATE STUDENT. KOCHI UNIVERSITY, RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF MOLECULAR GENETICS, KOCHI UNIVERSITY, NANKOKU, KOCHI, KOCHI, 7808520, NANKOKU, Japan.
  • Murakami, Professor Dr Satoshi Professor. Dept. Life Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259, J2-17 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, 226-8501, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Murakami, Professor Takashi Professor. Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo (Sci.Bldg. 5), 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
  • MURAKAMI, Professor Dr YOUICHI Professor. Photon Factory/Condensed Matter Research Center, IMSS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Ibaraki, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Muraki, Dr Michiro Biological Information Research Center (Tsukuba), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Ibaraki, 305-8566, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Mylonas, Dr Efstratios Post-doctoral researcher. Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1, Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Nagai, Professor Takaya Professor. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, N10W8, 060-0810, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Nagakura, Professor Dr Shigemaro Adviser. JEOL Ltd., Musashino 3-1-2, Akishima-shi, 196, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Nagata, Dr Koji Associate Professor. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, 113-8657, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Naitow, Dr Hisashi Beamline scientist. Division of Bio-Crystallography Technology (BL44B2), RIKEN Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikazuki-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Nakagawa, Professor Dr Atsushi Professor. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
  • Nakai, Professor Dr Izumi Professor. Applied Chemistry, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8601, Japan.
  • Nakajima, Dr Kenji Section leader of Neutron Science Section of MLF, J-PARC. Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, J-Parc, Ibaraki, 319-1195, Tokai, Japan.
  • Nakajima, Dr Masahiro Junior Associate Professor. Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, 2788510, Noda, Japan.
  • Nakajima, Dr Yoshitaka Associate Professor. Department of Life Science, Setsunan University, 17-8 Ikeda-nakamachi, Osaka, 572-8508, Neyagawa, Japan.
  • Nakamura, Professor Dr Naotake Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, Nojihigashi 1-1-1, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-77, Japan.
  • Nakamura, Professor Kazuo T. Professor. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 142, Japan.
  • Nakamura, Mr Takahito Student of Master Course. Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Tokyo, 125-8585, Katsushika-ku, Japan.
  • Nakatani, Professor Noriyuki Professor, retired. Electric and Electronic System Engineering, Toyama University, Gofuku 3190, 930-8555, Toyama, Japan.
  • Nakatsu, Dr Toru Associate Professor. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto Univ., Sakyo-ku, Kyoto Pref., 606-8501, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Nakayama, Professor Dr Noriaki Professor. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Tokiwadai 2-16-1, Ube 755-8611, Japan.
  • Nakayama, Dr Taisuke Research Associate. Structural Physical Chemistry, Division of Applied Chemistry, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, 565-0871, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
  • Nakazumi, Dr Yoshihide President. Nakazumi Crystal Laboratory, Sugahara-cho 3-1-304 Ikeda-shi, 563, Osaka, Japan.
  • Namba, Dr Keiichi Research director. International Institute for Advanced Research, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd., 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika, 619-02, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Nemoto, Dr Takashi Assistant Professor. Electron Microscopy and Crystal Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, -, Kyoto, 661-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Niimura, Professor Dr Nobuo Group head. Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-11, Japan.
  • Nishi, Professor Dr Fumito Professor, retired. Saitama Institute of Technology, Fusaiji 1690OkabeOsato-gun, 369-02, Saitama, Japan.
  • Nishibori, Professor Eiji Researcher. Materials Science Research Center, University of Tsukuba, -, -, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Nishihata, Dr Yasuo Principal scientist. Kansai Photon Science Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, SPring-8, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayo, Japan.
  • Nishikawa, Dr Keiko Professor emeritus. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263, Japan.
  • Nishikiori, Dr Shin-ichi Associate professor. Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.
  • Nishino, Professor Yoshinori Professor. Research Institute For Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 21 Nishi 10, Kita-ku, Hokkaido, 001-0021, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Nittono, Professor Osamu Professor emeritus, retired. Metallurgy and Ceramics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama, Meguro-ku, 152, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Noda, Professor Yasutoshi Associate professor. Dept. of Materials Science, Fac. of Eng., Tohoku Univ., Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, 980-77, Sendai, Japan.
  • Noda, Professor Yukio Professor. Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira Aoba-ku, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Nogami, Professor Yoshio Associate professor. Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Tsushimanaka 3-1-1, Okayama 700, Japan.
  • Nogi, Terukazu Associate Professor. Structural Biology Laboratory, Yokohama City University, Suehiro-cho 1-7-29, Yokohama, 606-01, Tsurumi-ku, Japan.
  • Noguchi, Dr Shuji Associate Professor. School of Pharamceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Yada 52-1, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Shizuoka-city, Japan.
  • Nonaka, Dr Takamasa Professor. School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, Nishitokuta 2-1-1, Iwate, 028-3694, Yahaba, Japan.
  • Ogashiwa, Mr Makoto student. Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1-1, Katahira, Miyagi-ken, 980-8577, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Japan.
  • Ogata, Dr Kiyoshi Senior researcher. Process Technology Department, Production Engineering Research Laboratory Hitachi, Ltd., 292 Yoshida-cho 292 Totsuka-ku, 244-0817, Yoshida-cho, Totsuka-ku, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Ogawa, Professor Keiichiro Professor. Prof. Keiichiro Ogawa, Department of Chemistry, The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902, Japan.
  • Ogawa, Dr Keizo Research Associate, retired. Ashigara Research Laboratory, Fuji Photo Film Co., Ltd., 210 Nakanuma, Kanagawa, 250-01, Minamiashigara, Japan.
  • Ogawa, Professor Tomoya Professor. Dept. of Physics, Gakushuin Univ., 1-5-1 Mejiro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171, Japan.
  • Ohachi, Professor Dr Tadashi Professor emeritus. Interface reaction epitaxy Laboratory, Doshisha University, D-egg, Zizoutani, Kyotanabe City, 610-0332, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Ohama, Professor Nobuhiko Professor. Division of Childhood Education, Department of Literature, Seinan Gakuin University, Nishijin 6-chome 2-92, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-8511, Japan.
  • Ohashi, Professor Yuji Coordinator. Professor Yuji Ohashi, Ibaraki Quantum Beam Research Center, 162-1, Shirakata, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1106, Japan.
  • Ohba, Professor Shigeru Professor. Department of Chemistry, Keio University, Hiyoshi 4-1-1 Kohoku-ku, 223-8521, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Ohba, Dr Takuya Professor. Department of Materials Science, Shimane University, Nishikawatsu, Matsue 690-8504, Japan.
  • Ohgo, Dr Yoshiki Professor. Department of Materials and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Teikyo University, 2-11-1, Tokyo, 173-8605, kaga itabashi-ku, Japan.
  • Ohhara, Dr Takashi Senior Scientist. J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-shirane, Ibaraki, 319-1195, Tokai, Japan.
  • Ohishi, Dr Yasuo Researcher. Materials Science Division, Japan Synchrotron Research Institute, Koto 1-1-1, Hyogo, 670-5198, Sanyo-gun, Sayo, Japan.
  • Ohmasa, Professor Masaaki Professor Emeritus. Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Koto 3-2-1, Kamigori, Akogun, Hyogo 678-1297, Japan.
  • Ohnuma, Professor Masato Professor. Faculty of engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Ohsato, Dr Hitoshi Senior researcher Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute. Hitoshi OHSATO, 1-618 Hirabari-minami, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-0020, Japan.
  • OHSHIMA, Professor KEN-ICHI Professor. Prof. Ken-ichi Ohshima, Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573, Japan.
  • Ohsugi, Dr Isao Professor. I.J. Ohsugi, Salesian Polytechnic (Salesio-Kosen), Oyamagaoka 4-6-8, Machida-shi, Tokyo 194-0215, Japan.
  • Ohsumi, Professor Kazumasa Professor. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305, Japan.
  • Ohta, Dr Kenji Lecturer. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama/I2-13, Tokyo, 152-8551, Meguro, Japan.
  • Ohta, Professor Toshiaki -. Research Organization of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, 525-8577, Shiga, Japan.
  • Oishi, Dr Takeshi assistant professor. school of medicine, Keio university, Hiyoshi 4-1-1, Kouhoku-ku, Kanagawa, 223-8521, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Okada, Dr Kenji Researcher. Noda Bldg. 3F Y-127, Tokiwa 2-1-7, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-0006, Japan.
  • Okada, Dr Tetsuji Researcher. Life Science, Gakushuin University, -, Toshima-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Okada, Dr Yasumasa research fellow. Photon Factory, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Ibaraki, 305, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Okamoto, Dr Akihiro Associate professor. Biological Science & Technology, School of High-Technology for Human Welfare, Tokai university, Nishino 317, Shizuoka, 410-0395, Numazu, Japan.
  • Okazaki, Professor Atsushi Professor emeritus. Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, 812-8581, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Oki, Mr Shunsuke Student of Master Course. Department of Materials Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, 125-8585, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Okube, Dr Maki Associate professor. Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Okubo, Dr Takashi associate professor. School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Osaka, 577-8502, Higashi-Osaka, Japan.
  • Okuda, Dr Hiroshi ass. prof.. Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, 606-8501, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Okudera, Dr Hiroki Associate Professor. Earth Science Course, School of Natural System, Kanazawa University., Build.2 of Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa-shi, Ishikawa pref., 920-1192 Japan.
  • Okui, Dr Masato Manager. Technical Division, KOHZU Precision Co. Ltd., 2-6-15 Kurigi, Asao-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa 215-8521, JAPAN.
  • Okuno, Professor Dr Masayuki Professor. Lab. Mineralogy, Dept. Earth Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-11, Japan.
  • Okuyama, Professor Kenji Professor. Prof. Kenji Okuyama, Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.
  • Onodera, Professor Akira Professor. Physics, Hokkaido Univ., Kita 10, Nisi 8, 060-0810, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Onozuka, Professor Takashi Professor. Niigata Institute of Technology, Mechanical and Control of Engineering 1719 Fujihashi, 945-1195, Kashiwazaki, Japan.
  • Orisaku, Dr Keiko Researcher. Department of material and life chemistry, Faculty of engineering, Kanagawa University, 3-27-1 Rokkaku-basi, Kanagawa-ken, 221-8686, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama-shi, Japan.
  • Osaka, Mr Noboru Ph. D. candidate. Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid States Physics, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Chibaken, Kashiwashi, Japan.
  • Osakabe, Dr Nobuyuki General Manager. Advanced Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 2520 Akanuma, Saitama, 350-0395, Hatoyama, Japan.
  • Osaki, Dr Kenji ?. Nampei-dai 5-9-6Takatsuki, 569-11, Osaka, Japan.
  • Osano, Dr Yasuko T. Senior research scientist. Analytical Sciences Lab., Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., 1000 Kamoshida Aoba-ku, 227-8502, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Oshiki, Dr Toshiyuki Research Associate. Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-naka, Okayama, 700-8530, Okayama, Japan.
  • Otsuka, Professor Kazuhiro Senior Scientist (Prof.Emeritus,U.Tsukuba). Prof. K. Otsuka, SSRC, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba 305-8568, Japan.
  • Oyama, Dr Takuji Assistant Professor. Department of Biotechnilogy, Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Yamanashi, 400-8510, Kofu, Japan.
  • Oyanagi, Professor Dr Hiroyuki Researcher. IMSS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Ibaraki, Japan, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Ozawa, Professor Yoshiki Associate professor. Department of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Harima Science Garden City, Hyogo, 678-1297, Kamigori, Japan.
  • Park, Dr Sam-Yong Scientist. Yokohama City University, -, -, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Pati, Dr Satya Prakash Researcher. Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05, Aoba-ku, Miyagi, 980-8574, Sendai, Japan.
  • Qin, Mr Huimin student. Applied Biological Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, 113-8657, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Roppongi, Miss Saori student. Yahaba, 0283694, Iwate, Japan.
  • RYKOV, Dr Alexandre Researcher. Alexandre I. Rykov (c/o Hisao Yamazaki), Nara-shi, Nakatomigaoka 1-chome, 1994-3, D34-203, Japan 631-0003.
  • Saiki, Dr Atsushi Research associate. Department of Matl. System Engn. and Life Science, Toyama University, 3190 Gofuku, 930-8555, Toyama, Japan.
  • Saito, Dr Jun-ichi Researcher. Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Kyowa Hakko Kogyo Co., Ltd., 1188 Shimotogari, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Shizuoka, 411-8731 Japan.
  • Saito, Professor Kazuya Associate professor. Chemistry, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, -, -, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Saito, Dr Kotaro Project Assistant Professor. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 1-1 Oho, Ibaraki, 3050801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Saitoh, Dr Hideki Lecturer. Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570, Japan.
  • Saitoh, Professor Koh Professor and Vice-director of the Center. Advanced Measurement Technology Center, Institute of Materials and Systems for Sustainability (IMaSS), Nagoya University, ---, -, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Sakabe, Dr Honorary Prof. Noriyoshi Chief researcher of FAIS. PF,KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 Japan.
  • Sakai, Professor Nobuhiko Professor, retired. Material science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kohto, Hyogo, 678-1297, Kamigori, Ako-gun, Japan.
  • Sakamoto, Professor Dr Keiichi Nihon University. Applied Molecular Chemistry, Nihon University, 1-2-1 Izumi-cho, Chiba, 275-8575, Narashino, Japan.
  • Sakamoto, Dr Yasumitsu Faculty. School of Pharmacy, Iwate Medical University, 2-1-1 Nishitokuta, Iwate, 0283694, Yahaba, Japan.
  • Sakane, Dr Hideto Associate Professor. Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Takeda 4-3-11, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan.
  • Sakata, Professor Makoto Professor emeritus. Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan.
  • Sakata, Dr Osami Station Director. National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Sakuma, Dr Takashi Professor. Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito 310, Japan.
  • Sakurai, Professor Kenji Director, Professor. Synchrotron X-ray Group, National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen, Ibaraki, 305-0047, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Sakurai, Dr Yoshiharu Associate Senior Researcher. JASRI/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo, Japan.
  • Sampei, Dr Gen-ichi Lecturer. Applied Physics and Chemistry, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Tokyo, 182-8585, Chofu-shi, Japan.
  • Sanada, Dr Yusuke Postdoc. Dep. of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Kitakyushu, 1-1 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Fukuoka, 808-0135, Kitakyushu, Japan.
  • SANO, Mr SATOSHI Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Space environment utilization center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sengen 2-1-1, Ibaraki, 305-8505, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Sasada, Dr Yoshio Emeritus Prof., Tokyo Institute of Technology. 3-36-5 Higashi-Hongo, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Sasaki, Dr Kyoyu Professor. Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601, Japan.
  • Sasaki, Professor Dr Satoshi Emeritus Professor. Prof. Satoshi SASAKI, (Tokyo Institute of Technology), Kamitsuruma-honcho 4-49-1-701, Minami-ku, Sagamihara 252-0318, JAPAN.
  • Sato, Professor Mamoru Professor. Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.
  • Sato, Professor Mitsuo Professor. Department of Chemistry, Gunma University, Tenjin-cho 1-5-1 Kiryu, 376, Gunma, Japan.
  • Sato, Dr Shin-ichi Professor Emeritus, Hokkaido U.. Hassamu 3-3-3-17, Nishi-ku, 063, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Sato, Dr Shoichi Chief researcher. Sato Laboratory, Kuboyamacho 1-9-109, Hachioji, 192-0023, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Sato, Dr Takao Research associate. Department of Biological Science & Technology, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tokushima, Minami-josanjima 2-1, Tokushima City, Tokushima 770, Japan.
  • Sato, Dr Taku Associate Professor. Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAN), Tohoku University, -, -, Tohoku, Japan.
  • Satow, Professor Dr Yoshinori Professor emeritus. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sci., University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan.
  • Sawa, Professor Dr Hiroshi Professor. Department of Applied Physics, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 Japan.
  • Sekine, Dr Akiko Research Associate. Chemistry and Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama Meguro-ku, 152-8551, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Senda, Professor Toshiya Senior Researcher. Structural Biology Research Center, Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tokyo, 305-0801, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Seto, Professor Hideki Professor. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, 203-1 Shirakata, Tokai 319-1106, Japan.
  • Shabbir, Dr Muhammad Researcher. 4-8,miyayamacho, 560056, Japan, Japan.
  • Shibahara, Professor Hiroyasu Professor. Dept. of Chemistry, Kyoto University of Education, Fujinomori 1, Fushimi-ku Fukakusa, Kyoto 612, Japan.
  • Shibahara, Professor Takashi Professor. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridai-cho, Okayama 700, Japan.
  • Shibata, Dr Naoki Research assistant. Department of Life Science, Faculty of Science, Himeji Institute of Technology, Kanaji 1479-1, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-12, Japan.
  • Shibayama, Professor Mitsuhiro Professor. Professor Mitsuhiro Shibayama, Neutron Science Laboratory, The Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581, Japan.
  • Shigematsu, Dr Hirotake Research associate. Yamaguchi University, 1677-1 Yoshida, 753-8513, Yamaguchi, Japan.
  • Shimizu, Dr Toshiyuki Professor. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, 1130033, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Shimoi, Professor Mamoru Professor. Dept. of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Komaba 3-8-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153, Japan.
  • Shimura, Dr Takayoshi Associate professor. Dept. of Material&Life Science, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565, Japan.
  • Shindo, Professor Dr Hitoshi Full Professor. Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science & Engineering, Chuo Univ., 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551, Japan.
  • Shiono, Dr Masaaki Research associate. Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 812-81, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Shiozaki, Professor Yoichi Professor. Division of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Kita 10 Nishi 8, Sapporo 060, Japan.
  • Shobu, Takahisa Beamline Scientist. Division of Material Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263, Japan.
  • Shrestha, Dr Lok Kumar Post-doctoral Researcher. Dr. Lok Kumar Shrestha, Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences, Yokohama National University, Tokiwadai 79-7 Hogogaya, 240-8501, Japan.
  • SIVAKUMAR, Dr THATHAN X-POSTDOCTORAL FELLOW. Email:thathansivakumar@gmail.com.
  • Soejima, Professor Yuji Professor. Department of Physics, Kyushu University, -, 812-81, Fukuoka, Japan.
  • Sogabe, Dr Satoshi Scientist. Chemistry, Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., 2-17-85 Jyuso-honmachi, Yodogawa, Osaka, 532-8686, Osaka, Japan.
  • Suda, Miss Katsumi technician. Materials and Structures Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Yokohama, 226-8503, Midori-ku, Japan.
  • Suehiro, Professor Kazuaki Professor, retired. Chemistry and Applied Chemistry, Saga University, Honjo-machi 1, 840-8502, Saga, Japan.
  • Sugawara, Professor Yoko Professor. Department of Physics, School of Science, Kitasato University, Kitasato 1-15-1, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.
  • Sugimoto, Dr Kunihisa Research & Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Sugio, Dr Shigetoshi Adjunct Professor. Institute of Innovative Research, Tokyo Institute of Technology, S2-4, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Kanagawa, 226-8503, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Sugishima, Dr Masakazu Associate Professor. Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67, Asahi-machi, 8300011, Kurume, Japan.
  • Sugiyama, Professor Kazumasa Professor. Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku Univ.KatahiraAoba-ku, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Sugiyama, Mr Yosuke Student. Biotechnology, Tokyo institute of technology, 4259 Nagatsuta-cho, Kanagawa, 226-8503, Midori-ku Yokohama, Japan.
  • Suzuki, Dr Atsuo Associate professor. Department of Biotechnology and Biomaterial Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho 1, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.
  • Suzuki, Professor Ikuo Professor, emeritus. Dept. Electrical and Computer Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya 466-8555, Japan.
  • Suzuki, Dr Mamoru Associate Professor. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka,Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
  • Suzuki, Dr Nobuhiro Associate professor. Department of Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Ibaraki College, 866 Nakane, Ibaraki, 312-8508, Hitachinaka, Japan.
  • Suzuki, Dr Yoshio Scientist. Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Koto, Hyogo, 679-5198, Sayo, Japan.
  • Tabira, Dr Yasunori Group Leader. Dr Yasunori Tabira, Materials Characterization Laboratory, Corporate R&D centre, Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co. Ltd., 1333-2 Haraichi, Ageo, Saitama 362-0021, JAPAN.
  • Tabuchi, Professor Masao Professor. Venture Business Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, 464-8603, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Tachibana, Dr Yuya researcher. Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Gunma University, -, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Tada, Professor Dr Toshiji Associate professor. Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, 599-8570, Osaka, Japan.
  • Tajiri, Dr Hiroo JASRI, 1-1-1, Hyogo, mikazuki, sayo, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Dr Miwako Research assistant. Institute of Applied Physics, Tsukuba University Tennoudai 1-1-1 Tsukuba-shi, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Dr Hiroki Assistant Professor. Graduate school of human & environmental studies, Kyoto University, Yoshida nihonmatsu-cho, 606-8501, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Dr Toshio Associate professor. Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Chiba, 277-8581, Kashiwa, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Professor Yasuhiro Associate professor, retired. Department of Macromolecular Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Mr Yuichi Drug Discovery Research Laboratories, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., 1188 Shimotogari, Shizuoka, 411-8731, Nagaizumi-cho, Sunto-gun, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Professor Yukio Associate Professor and Team Leader. Osaka University, Graduate School of Engineering, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, 565-0871, Osaka, Japan.
  • Takahashi, Yumiko Senior engineering. Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, -, Ibaraki, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Takakura, Professor Dr Hiroyuki Associate Professor. Research Group of Complex Material Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-8628, Hokkaido, Japan.
  • Takama, Dr Toshihiko Associate professor, retired. Division of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.
  • Takata, Dr Masaki Chief Scientist(RIKEN), Division Director(JASRI), Professor. Dr. Masaki Takata, Structural Materials Science, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, Koto 1-1-1, Sayo-cho, Sayo, Hyougo 679-5148, Japan.
  • Takebe, Mr Katsuki student. Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Yamadaoka, 565-0871, Suita, Japan.
  • Takeda, Professor Dr Shigeki Associate Professor. Shigeki Takeda, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Gunma University, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515.
  • Takeda, Professor Takayoshi Associate professor. Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-7-1 Kagamiyama, 739, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.
  • Takenaka, Professor Dr Akio Professor. Faculty of Pharmacy, Iwaki-Meisei University, 5-5-1 Chuodai-Iino, Iwaki, Fukushima 970-8551, Japan.
  • Takenaka, Professor Mikihito Professor. Chemical Institute for Chemistry, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Takenaka, Dr Yasuyuki Associate professor. Hokkaido University of Education at Hakodate, Hachiman 1-2, Hakodate, 040, Hokkaido, Japan.
  • Tamada, Dr Taro Project Leader. Quantum Beam Science Research Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 2-4 Shirakata, Ibaraki, 319-1106, Tokai, Japan.
  • Tamaki, Dr Masayoshi Retired Professor. Dr.Masayoshi Tamaki, TAMAKI Memorial Institute, Kuboshin-machi 2, Komaki 485-0006, Aichi, Japan.
  • Tame, Professor Jeremy Professor. Protein Design Laboratory, Yokohama City University, Suehiro-cho 1-7-29, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Tamura, Dr Hatsue Lecturer, retired. Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Univ., Machikaneyama 1-16 Toyonaka, 560-0043, Osaka, Japan.
  • Tamura, Dr Itaru ?. Division of Material Science, Graduate school of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage-ku, Chiba 263, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Dr Fumio Associate professor, retired. Laboratory of High Functional Polymers, Wood Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Kyoto, 611-0011, Uji, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Dr Hideaki Associate Professor. Laboratory of Protein Crystallography, Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, 565, Osaka, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Dr Ichiro Professor. Department of Biomolecular Functional Engineering, College of Engineering, Ibaraki University, 4-12-1, Naka-Narusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Isao Professor. Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Kiyoaki Professor. Nagoya Industrial Science Research Institute, Tikusa-Ku,Yotsuta-Toori 1-13, -, Nagoya, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Dr Masahiko Principal Engineer. Institute for Materials Science, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayocho, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayogun, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Michiyoshi Emeritus Professor. Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1 Aoba-ku, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Dr Nobuo Professor. Prof. Nobuo Tanaka, Department of Applied Physics, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Professor Nobuo Professor Emeritus, retired. Graduate of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, 226-8501, Yokohama, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Dr Nobutada Associate Professor. School of Pharmacy, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Tokyo, 142-8555, Shinagawa-ku, Japan.
  • Tanaka, Dr Taisuke Researcher. Minamirinkan Sunnyheights 202, 2-5-2, Minamirinkan, Yamato-shi, Kanagawa 242-0006, JAPAN.
  • Tanaka, Dr Takashi RIKEN SPring8 Center. SPring-8 Center, Koto 1-1-1, Hyogo, 649-5148, Sayo, Japan.
  • Taniguchi, Professor Masaki Director. Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Centre, Hiroshima University, 2-313 Kagamiyama, 739-8526, Higashi-Hiroshima, Japan.
  • TANIGUCHI, Dr YOSHITERU ENGINEERING CONSULTANT. 1-2-22, MAEJIOYA, KAGAWA, 763-0064, MARUGAME, Japan.
  • Tanokura, Professor Dr Masaru Professor. Masaru Tanokura, Ph. D., Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan.
  • Terauchi, Dr Masami Associate professor. Masmi Terauchi, IMRAM, Tohoku Univ., 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577, JAPAN.
  • Terawaki, Dr Shin-ichi Assistant professor. Faculty of Gunma university, Gunma university, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Gunma, 376-8515, Kiryu, Japan.
  • Tokonami, Professor Masayasu Professor, retired. Graduate School of Engineering, Saitama Inst. of Techn., 1690 Fusaiji Okabe, Saitama, 369-0293, Okabe, Japan.
  • Toraya, Dr Hideo Senior Adviser. Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12, Matsubara, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8666, Japan.
  • Toriumi, Professor Koshiro Professor. Department of Material Science, University of Hyogo, 3-2-1 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, 678-1297, Hyogo, Japan.
  • Tsuda, Professor Kenji Professor. Frontier Research Institute for Interdisciplinary Sciences, Tohoku University, Aramaki aza Aoba 6-3, Aoba-ku, 980-8579, Sendai, Japan.
  • Tsuge, Professor Hideaki Researcher. Kyoto Sangyo University, -, 603-8555, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Tsukamoto, Professor Katsuo Professor. Earth Science, Tohoku University, Aramaki Aoba, 9808578, Sendai, Japan.
  • Tsukihara, Professor Tomitake Professor of Osaka U. & Director of the Institute for Protein Research. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
  • Tsukimura, Dr Katsuhiro Senior research scientist. Geological Survey of Japan, Higashi 1-1-3, Tsukuba, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • TSUNODA, Dr Masaru Assistant Professor. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Showa University, 1-5-8 Hatanodai, Tokyo, 142-8555, Shinagawa, Japan.
  • Uchida, Dr Akira Associate professor. Department of Biomolecular Science, Faculty of Science, Toho University, 2-2-1 Miyama, Funabashi 274, Japan.
  • Uchida, Dr Tatsuya Medicinal Research Laboratories, Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 1-403 Yoshino-cho, Kita-ku, Saitama, 331-9530, Saitama, Japan.
  • Uechi, Ms Keiko Student. Rare Sugar Research Center, Kagawa University, 2393 Ikenobe, Miki-cho, Kagawa, 761-0795, Kita-gun, Japan.
  • Uehara, Dr Seiichiro Assistant professor. Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science 33, Kyushu University, Hakozaki 6-10-1, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan.
  • Ueji, Dr Yoshinori Research Associate. Rigaku Corporation, -, -, -, Japan.
  • Uekusa, Dr Hidehiro Associate Professor. Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama-2, Tokyo, 152-8551, Meguro-ku, Japan.
  • Umakoshi, Dr Keisuke Associate Professor. Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan.
  • Uragami, Professor Takuyuki Professor Emeritus. Okayama University of Science, Bancho 2-3-27, 700-0811, Okayama, Japan.
  • Viet Mui, Mr Luong student. lvmui.
  • Wada, Dr Kei Assistant Professor (Principal Investigator). Kei WADA, Ph.D, General researches and education building G701, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki 889-1692, JAPAN, Organization for Promotion of Tenure Track, University of Miyazaki.
  • Waki, Dr Katsushi Professor. Mathematical Sciences, Yamagata University, -, 990-6711, Yamagata, Japan.
  • Warizaya, Mr Masaichi 21 Miyukigaoka, Ibaraki, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Watanabe, Dr Masahiro Research Scientist. Biomass Refinery Research Center, National institute of advanced industrial science and technology (AIST), 3-11-32, 739-0046, Kagamiyama, Higashihiroshima, Japan.
  • Watanabe, Professor Dr Nobuhisa Professor. Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 4648603, Japan.
  • Watanabe, Dr Yousuke Reseacher. Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 980-77, Sendai, Japan.
  • Watari, Professor Fumio Professor, Chairman, retired 1 March 2012. Department of Oral Health Science, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Kita-ku, 060-8586, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Wu, Mr Yanlin Student. Department of Materials Structure Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 1-1 Oho, Ibaraki, 3050801, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Yabashi, Dr Makina Group Director. Beam Line Research and Development Group, XFEL Research and Development Division, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, 671-5148, Sayo, Japan.
  • Yagi, Professor Katsumichi Professor, retired. Physics Department, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama Meguro-ku, 152, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Yagi, Dr Naoto Group Leader. Research & Utilization Division, Spring-8, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1, Kouto, Hyogo 679-5198, Sayo-cho, Japan.
  • Yajima, Dr Shunsuke Department of Bioscience, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Sakuragaoka 1-1-1, Tokyo, 156-8502, Setagaya-ku, Japan.
  • Yamada, Dr Hiroshi research. Measurement Solution Research Center, AIST, 807- Shuku-machi, Saga, 841-0052, Kyushu, Japan.
  • Yamada, Dr Tsunetomo Post-doc. IMRAM, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Aobaku, Miyagi, 980-8577, Sendai, Japan.
  • Yamagata, Dr Atsushi Research Associate. Life Science Division, SRRO, The University of Tokyo, -, Tokyo, 560-0043, -, Japan.
  • Yamagata, Dr Tsuneaki research assistant. Dr. Tsuneaki Yamagata, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering Science, machikaneyama 1-3, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531, Japan.
  • Yamagata, Dr Yuriko Professor. Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kuamoto University, 5-1 Oe-honmachi, Kumamoto 862-0973, Japan.
  • Yamaguchi, Professor Dr Hiroshi Professor. School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, Uegahara 1-1-155, Hyogo, 662, Nishinomiya, Japan.
  • Yamaguchi, Miss Natsumi Student. Depertment of Materials Science and technology, Tokyo University of Science, 6-3-1 Niijuku, Tokyo, 125-8585, Katsushika-ku, Japan.
  • Yamakawa, Dr Junji Teacher. Department of Earth Science, Faculty of Science, Okayama University, Tsushima-naka 3-1-1, Okayama, 700-8530, Okayama, Japan.
  • Yamamoto, Dr Akiji Senior researcher. Advanced Materials Laboratory, National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials, Namiki 1, Ibaraki, 305-0044, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Yamamoto, Mr Atsushi student. GSE-common east 11F, Miyata laboratory.
  • Yamamoto, Keizo Research associate. Department of chemistry, Nara Medical University, Shijo-tyo 840, Kashihara, 634, Nara, Japan.
  • Yamamoto, Dr Masaki Group Director. Advanced Photon Technology Division, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Hyogo, 679-5148, Sayo-Cho, Sayo-gun, Japan.
  • Yamamoto, Professor Naoki Associate professor. Physics Department, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Oh-okayama Meguro-ku, 152, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Yamanaka, Professor Takamitsu Professor, Emeritus. Center for Quantum Science and Technology under Extreme Condition, Osaka University, -, -, Osaka, Japan.
  • Yamane, Mr Shuhei Student. Forest and Biomaterials Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Japan, 606-8502, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Yamane, Professor Takashi Professor. Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan.
  • Yamano, Dr Akihito General Manager of Application Laboratories. Application Laboratories, Rigaku Corporation, 3-9-12, Matsubara, Tokyo, 196-8666, Akishima, Japan.
  • Yamasaki, Dr Mikio ?. X-ray Research Laboratory Rigaku Corporation Matsubara-cho 3-9-12 Akishima-shi, 196-8666, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Yamashita, Dr Eiki Assistant Professor. Institute for Protein Research, Osaka University, 3-2 YamadaokaSuita, 565, Osaka, Japan.
  • Yamazaki, Dr Atsushi Professor. Department of Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan.
  • Yamazaki, Dr Satoru Basic research center, INAX corporation, 3-77 minato-cho, Aichi, 4798588, Tokoname, Japan.
  • Yamazaki, Professor Yasunori Professor emeritus. Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, 3-1-8 Komaba, Tokyo, 153-8902, Meguro, Japan.
  • Yao, Professor Min Professor. Laboratory of X-ray structural biology, Hokkaido University, 5-307, North 10 West 8, Kita-ku, 060-0810, Sapporo, Japan.
  • YAO, Professor Dr Takeshi Professor emeritus. Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501, Kyoto, Japan.
  • Yasuda, Professor Yukio Professor. Dep. Cryst. Materials Science, School of Engineering, Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-01, Japan.
  • Yasui, Dr Masanori Associate professor. Dept. of Applied Physics and Chemistry, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu-gaoka 1-5-1, Chofu-shi, Tokyo 182, Japan.
  • Yasuoka, Professor Noritake Professor. N. Yasuoka, Koshienguchi 4-6-22, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 678-8113, Japan.
  • Yasutake, Dr Yoshiaki Researcher. Bioproduction Research Institute, AIST, 2-17-2-1, Tsukisamu-higashi, Toyohira, 062-8517, Sapporo, Japan.
  • Ye, Dr Jinhua Senior researcher. Materials Physics Division, National Research Institute for Metals, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba-shi, 305, Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Yoda, Dr Osamu Principal scientist. Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizu, Kyoto 619-0215, Japan.
  • Yokomori, Professor Yoshinobu Professor, retired. Department of Applied Chemistry, National Defense Academy, Hashirimizu, Kanagawa, 239-8686, Yokosuka, Japan.
  • Yonekura, Dr Masami Professor. School of Agriculture, Ibaraki University, Chuo 3-21-1, Ami-machi, Ibaraki 300-0393, Japan.
  • Yoshiasa, Professor Akira Professor of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, -, 860-8555, Kumamoto, Japan.
  • Yoshida, Dr Hiromi Associate Prof.. Life Science Research Center, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Kita, Kagawa, 761-0793, Miki, Japan.
  • Yoshimura, Dr Jun-ichi Reseacher. Dr. Jun-ichi Yoshimura, Photon Factory, IMSS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 Ibaraki, Japan.
  • Yoshinari, Dr Nobuto Associate Professor. Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, 560-0043, Toyonaka, Osaka, Japan.
  • Yoshizaki, Dr Izumi National Space Development Agency of Japan. Space Utilization Research Center, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Sengen 2-1-1, Ibaraki, 305-8505, Tsukuba, Japan.
  • Yuge, Professor Dr Hidetaka Associate Professor. Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Kitasato University, Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.
  • ZHANG, Miss FANG Graduate School of Science and Engineering,,Iwaki-Meisei University,Japan. 105, Fukushima, 970-8044, Iwaki, Japan.
  • Zhang, Dr Kam Y. J. Team Leader. Division of Structural and Synthetic Biology, RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), 1-7-22 Suehiro, Kanagawa, 230-0045, Yokohama, Japan.

Japan

This is a list of forthcoming meetings in Japan that are recorded in the IUCr Calendar of Events. Please let us know of any that are missing by completing this form or sending an email to forthcoming.meetings@iucr.org.

χ-mag 2018 Japan 25th Jul 2018 - 28th Jul 2018
ZMPC2018. International Symposium on Zeolites and Microporous Crystals 2018 Japan 5th Aug 2018 - 9th Aug 2018
Seventh training course on symmetry and group theory Japan 6th Aug 2018 - 10th Aug 2018
10th International Workshop on Combinatorial Materials Science and Technology Japan 3rd Oct 2018 - 5th Oct 2018

Reports of past activities in Japan

2015 Hyogo 9th Cheiron School
2014 Tokyo CrSJ meeting 2014
2014 Tokyo IYCr in Japan
2010 Osaka CrSJ 2010
2008 Osaka Osaka Congress cont
2008 Osaka IUCr2008
2008 Osaka IUCr2008
2006 Epochal Tukuba AsCA 06
2005 Tosu-city JSSRR annual meeting
2004 Osaka CSJ annual meeting
2003 Kumamoto CrSJ meeting
2002 Tokyo CrSJ meeting
2000 Sendai CrSJ meeting

All events

This is a concise listing of all events in this country that are associated with the International Year of Crystallography 2014 and its follow-up initiatives.

14th Oct 2013 Crystallography Now and in the Beginning Kumamoto
12th Jan 2014 Special Session, 27th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society for Synchrotron Radiation Research, “Crystallography in Photon Science” Hiroshima, Japan
7th Mar 2014 SPring-8 Conference 2014 ~The World of Advanced Photon Science~ Osaka
25th May 2014 Outdoor Classroom of Science Experiment in EXPO Park Osaka
12th Jun 2014 Special session for IYCr2014 at the annual meeting of the society of fiber science and technology Japan Tokyo
17th Jun 2014 Joint Congress of Asian Crystallization Technology Symposium-2014 and 11th International Workshop on Crystal Growth of Organic Materials Nara
25th Jun 2014 The 235th SPring-8 Seminar Hyogo
23rd Jul 2014 Kashiwa Library, The 3rd Science Café Event “A process until artificial DNA is produced from the crystal of DNA” Chiba Prefecture
2nd Aug 2014 Open lecture at Yokohama National University "Crystals in our daily lives" Yokohama
15th Aug 2014 Training course on symmetry and group theory Tsukuba
23rd Aug 2014 Science Festival 2014 for youngsters in Osaka Osaka
17th Sep 2014 2014 Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences Annual Kumamoto
15th Oct 2014 Symposium in the 87th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Biochemical Society Kyoto
2nd Nov 2014 IYCr2014 Commemorative Symposium Tokyo
8th Nov 2014 SCCJ@Science Agora 2014 Tokyo
14th Nov 2014 Ice: Recent Developments on the Quasi Liquid Layer and the Anti-Freezing Phenomenon Neyagawa, Osaka
15th Nov 2014 The Crystal Exhibition Osaka
24th Nov 2014 Kashiwa Library, The 4th Science Café Event “Science 2.0 and Changes in Scholarly Communication Tools” Chiba Prefecture
9th Mar 2015 Second Training course on symmetry and group theory Tsukuba
New adventure of mister N As a special Issue of the Journal of Neutron Science Society of Japan, 'New adventure of mister N'

This Special Report was published in the IUCr Newsletter, Vol. 13, Nos. 2 and 3 (2004).

Overview of crystallography in Japan (1913 – 1980) 

Modern crystallography in Japan started right after Laue’s discovery of diffraction of X-rays by crystals (1912), and many valuable achievements were realized during those early years. To our regret, most of them were not recognized outside of Japan. This article will present an outline of crystallography in Japan, especially crystal structure determination, from its advent to approximately 1980. The reviewer apologizes that he cannot fully review research in physics and mineralogy since he is a chemist.

The early years of Crystallography to about 1945

[Nishikawa]Prof. S. Nishikawa
In 1913, T. Terada tried X-ray experiments using a rock salt crystal and a fluorescent screen in a dark room. He observed several diffraction spots and that they moved according to the movement of the crystal. He explained this phenomenon as reflection of the incident X-ray beam from the atomic net planes in the crystal (Nature 91, 135 (1913)). His work paralleled that reported by Bragg (Nature 91, 557 (1913)).

[Asbestos fiber]Laue photograph of asbestos fiber, the fiber axis inclined 45° to X-ray beam, Pt white X-ray (September, 19, 1913) (Nishikaw, S. and Ono, S., Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 131 (1913)).
S. Nishikawa, stimulated by Terada’s experiment, began X-ray diffraction studies with Pt white X-rays of (i) fibrous materials such as cotton, silk, and asbestos, (ii) minerals such as mica and talc, and (iii) crystalline powders of fluorite and zinc blende. He found that materials of group (i) were aggregates of micro crystals having a common (fiber) axis, group (ii) were stacked aggregates of thin leafy crystals, and group (iii) were randomly oriented powdered crystals (Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 131 (1913)). He was a pioneer in the area of X-ray studies of structures of complex compounds. Nishikawa (1915) then studied the structure of spinel, using Laue photographs with space group theory. This was the first case in which space group theory was applied to crystal structure determination. Nishikawa and K. Matsukawa (1928) verified, by experiments on zinc blende, the breakdown of Friedel’s law for crystals containing atoms which anomalously dispersed incident X-rays. This work was reported two years earlier than that of Coster, Knol, and Prins (1930).

[Nitta]Prof. I. Nitta
In 1922, Nishikawa organized a crystallography research group that used both X-ray and electron diffraction in the Institute for Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo). I. Nitta, a member of the group, studied the crystal structure of pentaerythritol C(CH2OH)4 to establish tetrahedral carbon valence bonds. At that time, however, there was a report based on a space group assignment that the central C atom of pentaerythritol in the crystal was (tetragonal) pyramidal. Nitta (1926) found that the reported space group was erroneous and the C atom was actually tetrahedral. This was later verified by a full structure determination, and the tetrahedral carbon valence bonds were established. Nitta served as Vice President of IUCr from 1963 to 1969.

[Ito]T. Ito
S. Kikuchi, a member of Nishikawa’s group, began research on electron diffraction right after the experiments by Davisson, Germer and Thomson in 1927. Kikuchi then succeeded in doing high-energy electron diffraction (HEED) studies on single crystals of mica (1928). He observed several characteristic features of HEED, now known as the Kikuchi pattern. Several crystallographers in this group, S. Miyake, R. Uyeda, N. Kato and others studied the diffraction physics of both X-rays and electrons.

In 1924 T. Ito, who studied crystallography with P. Niggli and later with W. L. Bragg, organized a research group on mineralogical crystallography at the Univ. of Tokyo. In 1933, Nitta organized a crystallographic research group at Osaka Univ.

(1945 – 1980)

Diffraction physics : N. Kato experimentally and theoretically studied X-ray dynamical diffraction, section topographs and secondary extinction. He was President of IUCr (1978~1981), and a winner of the IUCr Ewald Prize. K. Kohra was the principal crystallographer working on the construction of the Tsukuba Photon Factory, which is still one of the most productive SR sources in the world.

Mineralogical crystallography: from 1945 – 1955 T. Ito and his collaborators, R. Sadanaga, Y. Takeuchi, N. Morimoto and others, determined crystal structures of important minerals. Ito developed a powerful indexing method for X-ray powder diffraction patterns, the Ito method. During this period, Ito established the general idea of ‘cell twin’ or ‘Ito twin’ for ‘repeated twinning of unit cell level’. This twin was quite different from the macroscopic one. These results were published in X-ray Studies on Polymorphism (Maruzen, 1950).

Sadanaga and others systematized Ito’s theory of the twin space group. Takeuchi studied the crystal structures of minerals under high pressure and/or high temperature. Morimoto, M. Tokonami and Y. Koto studied structures, superstructures and phase-transitions of many minerals.

Instruments: One of the first large computers built in Japan, comparable to IBM systems, that had enough capacity for computing in crystal structure determination came into operation in 1967. A program system UNICS (universal crystallographic computing system) consisting of fundamental programs for structure determination was written by T. Sakurai, T. Ashida and others (1967), and used by many crystallographers. The first Japanese computer-controlled four-circle diffractometer was produced in 1968 by Rigaku. Then the precision as well as the speed of X-ray single crystal structure determination in Japan improved dramatically. Tsukuba photon factory 2.5GeV came into operation in 1983. It provided a large step forward for the development of crystallography in Japan which saw an ensuing growth in the number of researchers involved in structure determination.

Anomalous dispersion: Using anomalous dispersion Y. Saito and collaborators (1954) were among the first to determine absolute configuration with their work on the complex ion [Co(en)3]3+. Y. Okaya, Saito and R. Pepinsky proposed the theoretically attractive Ps(u) function. Okaya and Pepinsky formulated the relationship between structure factor phases and anomalous dispersion terms. This relationship is used in the phasing method which is now most widely applied for protein crystallography.

Electron density distribution: Y. Tomiie et al. (1958) studied precise electron density distribution in diformylhydrazine and obtained a reasonable coincidence with the one calculated by the MO method. He also found the electron density of a lone pair of electrons belonging to the O atom. Saito, F. Marumo and others studied precise 3d electron distribution in some transition metal ions and compared their results with theoretical predictions. Saito, H. Iwasaki and others studied electron density distributions in charge transfer complexes.

Important compounds: Crystal structures of many important compounds, such as natural organic compounds, coordination compounds, organometallics (A. Shimada, N. Kasai and N. Yasuoka), charge transfer complexes, synthetic polymers (H. Tadokoro), oligopeptides (Ashida), etc, have been studied. Many crystallographers are engaged in research in this category, but only a few of them could be presented here for want of space.

Crystalline phase reactions : In 1977, Y. Ohashi and Y. Sasada observed that racemization occurred when crystals of an (S-α-methylbenzylamine)cobaloxime complex were exposed to X-rays. This reaction could be traced by observing changes in electron density with exposure time. Similar reactions were found in the crystals of related compounds and were extensively studied. This research exploited a new attractive research field in chemical crystallography.

Protein crystals: M. Kakudo, Ashida, N. Tanaka and others began protein crystallography in 1965, and reported a 2.3 Å resolution structure of bonito ferrocytochrome c at the IUCr meeting in 1972. Most of the MIR programs necessary were prepared by Ashida. This was the first high-resolution analysis of a protein structure in Japan. In an international collaboration involving the staff of Dorothy Hodgkin’s laboratory in England, N. Sakabe and others studied 2Zn-insulin at 3.1 Å resolution in 1972 and 1.1 Å resolution in 1984. Y. Iitaka and Y. Mitsui and others studied 2.6 Å resolution subtilisin inhibitor in 1979. Katsube’s group reported the structure of ferredoxin in 1981. From that point on protein crystallography in Japan developed rapidly in both quality and quantity.

Other biological materials: DNA, RNA and related compounds were studied by Y. Mitsui and Iitaka, Sasada’s group and K. Tomita’s group. Bacterial cilia and flagella, muscle, biomembranes, etc have been studied. Among many biophysicists who engaged in the research of these material were T. Mitsui’s group including T. Ueki, and K. Wakabayashi.

Crystallographic community

[Fujii, Iwasaki, Kato, Tanaka, Ohashi] 50th Anniversary Celebration. (left to right) Y. Fujii (Chair of NCC-Japan, Program Chair of IUCr2008); F. Iwasaki (President of CrSJ); late N. Kato (the former IUCr President, 1978-1981); M. Tanaka (Vice President of IUCr); Y. Ohashi (President of AsCA, EC member of IUCr)
Japan joined the IUCr in 1951 with its adhering body being the National Committee for Crystallography (NCC-Japan), which adheres to the Science Council of Japan (SCJ). The Crystallographic Society of Japan (CrSJ) was organized in 1950 as the electorate for the national committee. The number of members is now about 1,300. CrSJ has held annual meetings since 1973, and has published the Journal of the Crystallographic Society of Japan (bimonthly) since 1960.

The Japanese crystallographic community has hosted several successful international meetings including the IXth Congress and General Assembly of the IUCr, Kyoto (1972), the 7th Sagamore Conference, Nikko (1982) and the International Summer School on Crystallographic Computing, Kyoto (1983)

CrSJ and NCC-Japan jointly celebrated the 50th anniversary of crystallography in Japan in Tokyo on July 1, 2000.

Tamaichi Ashida
(ashida-t@mpd.biglobe.ne.jp)

Activities in big facilities

SPring-8

[Aerial photograph]SPring-8, the largest third-generation synchrotron radiation facility in the world, provides the most powerful synchrotron radiation currently available. The Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) began constructing SPring-8 (Super Photon ring-8GeV) in 1991 with support from Hyogo Prefecture, universities, research institutes and industries, and opened the facility in October, 1997.

Since its completion, all aspects of its operation have been conducted by the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), which was designated as the sole institute for the management, operation and development of SPring-8. SPring-8 consists of a 1GeV linear accelerator and 8GeV booster synchrotron that generates an incident electron beam of 8GeV and a storage ring (electron energy, 8GeV; current, 100mA; circumference, 1436m) that holds the generated electrons. Figure 3-1-1 shows the Bird’s-eye view of SPring-8.

There are two types of light sources in SPring-8, insertion devices and bending magnets. Insertion devices are either undulators or wigglers. SPring-8 beam ports include insertion device beamlines with a 6m straight section (max. 34, existing 26), long insertion device beamlines with a 30m long straight section (max. 4, existing 1) and bending magnet beamlines (max. 24, existing 21). In-vacuum type undulators developed at SPring-8 have magnet arrays sealed in a vacuum chamber. The arrangement results in a smaller gap between arrays, allowing radiation with shorter wavelength and higher power to be generated.

There is an in-vacuum revolver variable polarization undulator, an in-vacuum figure-8 undulator, a twin helical undulator, a tandem vertical undulator, an elliptical wiggler, and others that generate a variety of polarized radiation. The characteristic photon energy of a bending magnet is 28.9 keV.

62 beamlines are available. 46 are in operation and 2 are under construction. The beamlines are classified as public beamlines, contract beamlines, JAERI/RIKEN beamlines, R&D beamlines, and beamlines for accelerator diagnosis.

Two beamlines, whose lengths are 225m, are already operational at the biomedical imaging center. Two beamlines, longer than 100m, have been developed at the RI laboratory for research on radioactive isotopes and actinide materials. A 1 km-long beamline is used for research on advanced coherent X-ray optics.

The top-up operation was started successfully at SPring-8 in May, 2004. The electron beam is injected at short intervals during user beamtime, so that the current stored in the storage ring is kept constant. The top-up operation has a number of innovative features such as (1) a perturbation-free beam injection scheme, (2) minimum injection beam loss, and (3) a high purity singlebunch beam. This “ideal top-up operation” is used by many other light source facilities around the world. The top-up operation offers the following benefits to users: (1) time averaged brilliance is increased by a factor of two, (2) improvement of thermal stability of the X-ray optics, and (3) a new filling pattern with a high bunch current that was not available in more conventional operations due to the extremely short beam life-time.

SPring-8 invites proprietary and non-proprietary research proposals in June and November and does not charge users for beam time if their research is non-proprietary. The annual operation time of Spring-8 is around 5400 hours, with more than 4200 hours available for experiments. More than 1000 research subjects are accepted annually by SPring-8, and the number of researchers involved exceeds 10000.

Hideo Ohno, SPring-8

Photon factory

[Q-magnet arrangement]Fig. 3-2-1. Modification of Q-magnet arrangement for the straight section upgrade of the 2.5 GeV ring. (a) Lengthening existing straight sections. (b) Creating new straight sections.
The Photon Factory was the first synchrotron radiation research facility for X-rays in Japan. It operates two electron storage rings, shown in Table 1. One is a 2.5 GeV ring that has been operational since 1982. It’s emittance was 400 nm⋅rad in the beginning, but was reduced to 36 nm⋅rad with upgrades in 1986 and 1997. The other is a single bunch operated 6.5 GeV electron storage ring which had been used parasitically since 1986 and then in dedicated mode for synchrotron radiation research since 1997. This ring has a unique feature that 100 ps wide X-ray pulses are always obtained with a repeat period of 1.24 micro seconds. There are currently 7 and 4 insertion device beamlines on the 2.5 GeV and 6.5 GeV rings, respectively. The BL-2 of the 2.5 GeV ring is a soft X-ray undulator beamline which was the first in Japan and the second in the world. There are two in-vacuum undulator beamlines on the 6.5 GeV ring one of which is the first in-vacuum undulator beamline in the world and has been used extensively for the study of nuclear Bragg scattering, which makes the best use of pulsed X-Rays. A new in-vacuum X-ray undulator beamline is under construction on the 6.5 GeV ring for the study of photo-induced phase transitions in highly correlated materials.

There are 32 X-ray experimental stations out of 58 on the 2.5 GeV ring (energy ranging from 2.2 to 100 keV) and 8 X-ray experimental stations out of 9 on the 6.5 GeV rings (energy ranging from 5 to160 keV). Among those 40 X-ray stations, 22 are for non-biological diffraction/scattering experiments, 5 for protein crystal structure analysis, 2 for small angle scattering, 8 for X-ray spectroscopy, 2 for X-ray imaging and 2 for others. There are 650-700 active experimental proposals every year and approximately 2,700 users repeatedly visit the Photon Factory to carry out their experiments. Eighty to eighty-five percent of proposals are for X-ray experiments, the others are for VUV/soft X-ray experiments. Since the inauguration of the facility in 1982, a number of contributions have been made at the Photon Factory. Those are, for example, MAD analysis of protein crystal structures using synchrotron radiation data, extensive use of image plates for X-ray diffraction experiments, development and extensive use of multi-anvil cells for structure studies under high pressure and high temperature, development of an X-ray Fresnel lens, experimental studies of resonant magnetic X-ray scattering, development of a quarter wave X-ray phase plate using a Bragg-transmitted beam, use of anomalous scattering methods for the study of orbital order in crystals, the development of an in-vacuum undulator and its extensive use for the study of nuclear Bragg scattering, and extensive use of a high energy X-ray elliptical wiggler for magnetic Compton scattering.

To meet requests for more experimental opportunities on insertion device beamlines, the lattice of the 2.5 GeV ring will be modified in the summer of 2005 to increase the number of straight sections for insertion devices. The modifications place new quadrupole magnets of shorter length with higher field gradients closer to neighboring bending magnets to lengthen the existing straight sections or to create new straight sections as shown in Fig. 3-2-1. Four short straight sections of 1.5 m will be created. Furthermore, two 5 m long straight sections will lengthened to 9.2 m, and 8 other sections of 3.5 m will become more than 5 m. Except for one straight section used forelectron beam injection, a total of 13 straight sections will be available for insertion devices on the 2.5 GeV ring. Such an improvement will enable us to install longer undulators with planar or helical magnet configurations and minipole undulators with a narrower gap at the short straight sections. By adding 5 straight sections on the 6.5 GeV ring, the Photon Factory will have a total of 18 straight sections for insertion devices. An in-vacuum short period undulator beamline for structural biology is now being constructed and will be commissioned in the fall of 2005. Another in-vacuum undulator Xray beamline for materials science will be constructed and commissioned in 2006.

Tadashi Matsushita
(tadashi.matsushita@kek.jp)

Neutron facilities

Japan started atomic energy related activities well behind Western countries after World War II. In the mid 1950s the first nuclear research reactor JRR-1 (Japan Research Reactor No.1, 50kW, now preserved in a museum in Tokai) built by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was used for neutron beam research. Neutron scattering research requiring an MW-class reactor started in the early 1960s when JAERI built the JRR-2, which could produce a thermal power of 10MW, thermal neutron flux or 2x1014 neutrons/cm2/sec. There were 9 neutron scattering instruments during its most active period. It was the first neutron source available for inelastic experiments and also played a central role in training many researchers. It was permanently shut down in 1996, as scheduled, after about 35-years of service. Side-by-side with JRR-2, the JRR-3 (10MW, 1x1014 n/cm2/sec, 6 instruments) was built with purely domestic technology for the first time. In the mid 1960s Kyoto University built its 5MW reactor named KUR (3x1013n.cm2/sec, 8 instruments; www-j.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/) in Kumatori. It is the only MW-class reactor owned by a university. In late 1960s and 1970s, therefore, three medium-size reactors were available for neutron scattering and other beam experiments while several high flux reactors became operational abroad such as the HFBR at Brookhaven National Laboratory (60MW, 8x1014, USA), HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (85MW, 1x1015, USA), and HFR at the Institute Laue Langevin (58MW, 3x1015, France). Japanese user’s strong demand for higher neutron flux by the early 1980s culminated in the refurbishment of the JRR-3 to double its thermal power (20MW, 3x1014) and install a new cold neutron source accompanied with a guide hall building. This refurbished reactor renamed as JRR-3M became fully operational in 1990. Currently it supports 25 neutron scattering, 2 neutron radiography and 2 prompt γ-ray analysis instruments and a total number of about 12,000 users per day (www.issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp/labs/neutron/index.html and www.jaeri.go.jp/).

[Five
facilities] Fig. 3-3-1 A schematic layout of five major facilities based on an intense proton accelerator for the J-PARC jointly promoted by JAERI and KEK.
Japan is one of pioneers in the field of accelerator-based neutron sources. In the mid 1960s the electron linear accelerator at Tohoku University in Sendai, dedicated to nuclear studies, was tested as an injector to a metal target to produce neutrons. It was then successfully used as a pulse neutron source for neutron diffraction experiments even after a new spallation neutron source was built at KEK (the present High Energy Accelerator Research Organization; http://kek.jp/) in Tsukuba in 1980. This neutron source, named KENS, was the first dedicated pulse neutron facility in the world and it has been operated at a proton beam power of 4kW for a total of 17 instruments and a cold source. Several more powerful sources were built abroad such as IPNS at Argonne National Laboratory (6kW, 1981, USA), LANSCE at Los Alamos National Laboratory (80kW, 1985, USA), and ISIS at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (160kW, 1985, UK). The Japanese community demanded a much stronger pulse neutron source to follow post-KENS. KEK belonging to the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MONBUSHO) planned the Hadron Project consisting of four major facilities based on an intense proton accelerator (0.6MW) to be used for neutron scattering, muon science, nuclear and high energy physics. JAERI belonging to the Science and Technology Agency (STA) also planned a MWclass proton accelerator that would provide intense proton beams to two facilities for neutron scattering and R&D for nuclear transmutation. Both were very big projects costing nearly one billion US dollar each. When MONBUSHO and STA merged, it was recommended that both projects merge and be promoted jointly by JAERI and KEK. In 2001 the Japanese Government funded it for the following 6 years (later extended to a 7-year project in 2003). Fig. 3-3-1 displays a layout of the facility, now called J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex; http://j-parc.jp/), which consists of 5 major facilities based on an intense proton accelerator (1MW). According to the plan, proton beams are accelerated by Linac up to 400Mev and transported into the 3GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (3GeV PS in figure) further accelerating up to 3GeV. Most of the beams are transported to the Materials and Life Science Facility (3GeV PS Experimental Area) where both neutrons and muons are produced. This neutron beam facility, tentatively called JSNS (Japan Spallation Neutron Source, 1MW), will have a total of 23 beam lines at which instruments will be installed. A small portion of the proton beams from the 3GeV PS is fed into the 50GeV synchrotron (50GeV PS) for nuclear physics and for long base-line neutrino experiments to be combined with the Super KAMIOKANDE. In the near future, a superconducting Linac will be installed at the end of the 400MeV Linac to further accelerate proton beams up to 600MeV for R&D study of nuclear transmutation.

[J-PARC]Fig. 3-3-2 An aerial photograph of the construction site of J-PARC in Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI directly facing the Pacific Ocean. JRR-3M reactor currently operational and JSNS under construction are located within 1km. Photo taken from the right hand side (south) of Fig. 3-3-1.
Fig. 3-3-2 is an aerial photograph of the construction site of the J-PARC taken in February 2004, the fourth year of the 7-year project. One can see both the JRR-3M 20MW reactor-based steady source and the JSNS 1MW accelerator-based pulse source located within 800m of each other on the same campus facing the Pacific Ocean. This co-location of both neutron sources will be a great advantage for neutron science and technology and they will be available to users worldwide. The first neutron beams from JSNS are scheduled in November 2007 and a users program will start in April 2008.

The Japanese neutron community has been dominated by solid state physicists at the forefront of solid state physics and material science particularly in the field of low-dimensional magnetic and strongly-correlated electron systems including high-Tc superconductors and CMR materials. After cold neutrons became available from JRR- 3M in 1990, however, soft-matter scientists and biologists started using the domestic neutron facilities and now account for as many as one quarter of the total proposals. Another innovation in neutron crystallography is a neutron-sensitive imaging plate (IP) specially developed by the JAERI group with Fuji Film Co., which has opened up a new era of structural biology. Another important instrumental development is the wide variety of neutron optical devices such as the magnetic lens, compound prism, and supermirrors cooperatively developed by RIKEN, JAERI and KUR Groups (http://nop.riken.go.jp/indexJ.html). These devices combined with a new neutron source will lead to new instruments to reach an unexplored region of momentum-energy-spin space for promoting new fields of crystallography.

Yasuhiko Fujii, JAERI
fujii@neutrons.tokai.jaeri.go.jp

Recent developments in biological crystallography

[Bovine cytochrome oxidase]Fig.2-2-1. The structure of bovine cytochrome oxidase
In 1913, one year after Laue’s discovery, Nishikawa and Ono of the University of Tokyo successfully observed diffraction patterns from plant and animal fibers. Forty-six years later, M. Kakudo of IPR, founded a laboratory for protein crystallography at Osaka University. This group started to crystallize cytochrome c in 1962. After developing automatic four circle diffractometers and computing programs, they determined the structure of bonito ferrocytochrome c at 2.3 Å resolution in 1973. With the support of the Crystallographic Society of Japan, M. Kakudo and N. Yasuoka established the Research Center for Crystallography at IPR in 1978 to promote protein crystallography in Japan. In the 1970s, two additional groups were active in protein crystallography. N. Sakabe (Nagoya University) and Y. Mitsui (University of Tokyo) were working on insulin and subtilisin inhibitor protein, respectively. Another protein structure determined during the 1970s was a bacterial protease inhibitor (1977), whose structure was solved by Mitsui’s group. Many protein crystallographers were trained in these three groups. In the early 1980s two notable structures, [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin at 2.8 Å (1980) and RNase ST at 2.5 Å (1982), were reported by Kakudo’s group and by Mitsui’s group, respectively. The structures of Taka-amylase A at 3.0 Å (1980), rice ferricytochrome c at 2.0 Å (1983), cytochrome c3 at 1.8 Å (1984), a complex of subtilisin and its inhibitor protein at 2.6 Å (1984), Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor at 3.0 Å (1986), [4Fe-4S] ferredoxin at 2.3 Å (1988), aspartate aminotransferase at 2.8 Å (1988), and omega-amino acid: pyruvate aminotransferase at 2.0 Å (1989) were determined during the 1980s.

[Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump]Fig. 2-2-2. The structure of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump.
In the 1990s, new research groups studying protein crystallography were organized by a younger generation of scientists both inside and outside of universities. The number of protein structures determined at high resolution has gradually increased. Eight membrane protein structures have been determined at high resolution using X-ray methods in Japan. In 1995, following an almost 20 year collaboration, T. Tsukihara’s group at Osaka University and S. Yoshikawa’s group at Himeji Institute of Technology succeeded in the structure determination of a bovine respiratory membrane protein complex, cytochrome c oxidase, consisting of two copies of 13 different subunits (Fig. 2-2-1). This structure, the first membrane protein structure determined from mammalian cells, was a marked breakthrough not only in crystallographic studies of membrane proteins, but also in the field of bioenergetics. Upon examination of the structures of the enzyme complex in different reaction states, these groups proposed a new theory of the proton pumping mechanism (1998, 2003). C. Toyoshima (University of Tokyo) determined the structure of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump in 2000 (Fig. 2-2-2). He successfully demonstrated the mechanism of calcium pumping by serial structural analyses of reaction intermediates (2002, 2004). T. Okada’s endeavor to crystallize a G proteincoupled receptor resulted in successful structure determination by a collaboration of SPring-8 group lead by M. Miyano and R. E. Stenkamp’s group of University of Washington in 2000. Collaborating with A. Yamaguchi (Osaka University), three young crystallographers, M. Murakami, S. Nakashima and E. Yamashita, determined the structure of the bacterial multidrug efflux transporter AcrB in 2002. The structure of rat monoamine oxidase A (2004) was the first structure of a membrane protein with an isolated single transmembrane helix. The structures of three other membrane proteins, bacteriorhodopsin by Kouyama (Nagoya University, 1999, 2004), a bacterial photoreaction center by K. Miki (Kyoto University, 2001), and photosystem II by N. Kamiya (RIKEN, 2003) have been determined. Y. Fujiyoshi (Kyoto University) has been working on the technique of cryo-electron microscopy since the 1980s. Collaborating with scientists around the world, he has determined the structures of a number of physiologically important membrane proteins and viruses, including influenza A virus (1994), a plant light-harvesting complex (1994), bacteriorhodopsin (1999), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (1999, 2003), aquaporin 1 (2000), a voltage-sensitive sodium channel (2001), and others.

[Bacterial flagellar]Fig. 2-2-3. The structure of bacterial flagellar.
K. Namba (Osaka University) elucidated the mechanism of bacterial flagellar assembly and function by combining cryo-electron and X-ray structures (1995-2004) (Fig. 2-2-3). A. Nakagawa elucidated the structural organization of a double-shelled RNA virus based on the structure of Rice Dwarf Virus at 3.5 Å resolution (2003). Many other physiologically important protein structures have been determined in Japan since the mid 1990s. Outstanding structural studies on recombination, replication, transcription, and translation have been performed by K. Morikawa (BERI, 1999-2004) and T. Hakoshima (Nara IST, 2000), S. Yokoyama (RIKEN and University of Tokyo, 1995-2004), and I. Tanaka (Hokkaido University, 1997, 1999). After setting up a Structural Biology Center in the Photon Factory, S. Wakatsuki has made significant progress in understanding the structural biology of lysosomal protein transport (2002, 2003).

[Sakabe camera]Fig. 2-2-4. Early version of a Sakabe camera at thePhoton Factory
In 2002, the Japanese government started a large structural genomics program, “Protein 3000.” In addition to the highthroughput structural genomics approach led by S. Yokoyama (RIKEN), eight target oriented structural genomics projects led by I. Tanaka (Hokkaido University), S. Wakatsuki (Photon Factory), M. Tanokura (University of Tokyo), K. Miki (Kyoto University), A. Nakagawa (Osaka University), and others are included in Protein 3000.

N. Sakabe has been developing IP diffractometers at the Photon Factory since the early 1980s (Fig. 2-2-4). Before SPring-8 began operations, all protein crystallographers were dependent on him for the collection of intensity data. Many Japanese and foreign crystallographers determined a number of novel crystal structures using his detectors at the Photon Factory. The newest version, which has a high quality and high speed detector, was installed at BL-6C in the Photon Factory. S. Wakatsuki has built a new user friendly undulator beamline equipped with a CCD detector. The Photon Factory has one undulator and three bending magnet beamlines and SPring-8 has four undulator and six bending magnet beamlines for protein crystallography. Each beamline has specific features, requiring separate network systems for access. In addition to X-ray beamline facilties, the Japanese Atomic Energy Institute has a neutron beamline facility. A neutron diffractometer dedicated to protein crystals has been developed by Niimura’s group (2004).

Tomitake Tsukihara
(tsuki@protein.osaka-u.ac.jp)

CRYSTALLOGRAPHY IN JAPAN

This issue completes the series of articles describing crytallography in Japan that started in Vol 13 No 2. Our thanks to Yuji Ohashi for assembling the information.

Recent developments

Chemical crystallography

[Figure 1]Fig. 1 Photo-produced triplet diphenylcarbene and nitrogen molecule
In Japan, many chemical crystallographers are doing forefront research in solid-state reaction-mechanisms, supra-molecular chemistry, phase transition, and materials science. Multi-dimensional structural chemistry which depends on time, temperature, and humidity etc. is actively investigated together with the development of equipment with two-dimensional detectors.

[Figure 2]Fig. 2 The MSGC detector set up at SPring-8. The detector and the data acquisition system are installed in a cubic box of ca. 25 cm. Rotating the crystal around a vertical axis by 360 degrees on the goniometer, the intensity data can be observed within 0.2 msec.
At the Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Y. Ohashi, H. Uekusa and their coworkers developed crystalline-state reaction, which means the reaction occurs in a single crystal without degradation of crystallinity. Any stage of the reaction process, therefore, can be observed by X-ray crystal structure analysis and the reaction mechanism can be analyzed using the intermediate structures as eyewitness accounts. They defined the reaction cavity, which explains quantitative reactivity in solid-state reactions. Recently, in collaboration with Rigaku, they have developed a new diffractometer with an imaging-plate detector, R-AXIS RAPID, which enables three-dimensional intensity data collection within 2 or 3 hours. Using this new diffractometer, they analyzed a variety of metastable intermediate structures, such as radical pairs of hexaarylbiimidazolyl derivatives, triplet carbenes (Fig. 1) and triplet nitrenes. Moreover, they analyzed the excited-state structures of a series of Pt complexes and a vanadium complex at the equilibrium state between ground and excited states. In order to analyze more rapid structural changes, they are now developing a new detector, Micro-Strip-Gas-Chamber (MSGC). Using this detector and a rotating anode, preliminary intensity data were collected within 2 seconds and the structure was successfully analyzed. Combining the detector and Synchrotron radiation at SPring-8 (Fig. 2), they found that the cell change of the Pt complex due to the formation of the excited state continued for more than 20 seconds and then the equilibrium state appeared.

[Figure 3]Fig. 3 A cutaway view of the [V12O32]4- anion that traps an otherwise unstable NO- anion.
T. Ozeki (Tokyo Inst. of Technology) is working on the structural chemistry of polyoxometalates. His research interests include the crystal structure determinations of novel polyoxometalates, hydrogen bonds involving the polyoxometalates, extended structures using polyoxometalates as building blocks, and inclusion compounds using the polyoxomelatate as the host (Fig. 3). He is also in charge of two diffractometers in the synchrotron radiation facilities: an imaging plate Weissenberg camera at the BL04B2 beamline of SPring-8 and a CCD diffractometer at the NW2 beamline of the Advanced Ring (AR), Photon Factory (PF) of the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK). Using these facilities, he is exploiting the advantage of the high energy (typically λ=0.33Å) and high flux X-rays to do atomic-resolution single crystal structure analyses of polyoxometalates and other chemically synthesized molecules (sometimes the size of which is stepping out of the realm of smallness and thus the common name “small molecules” is not used here).

[Figure 4]Fig. 4. Low-temperature vacuum X-ray camera at SPring-8 BL02B1 beamline.
K. Toriumi and Y. Ozawa (Univ. of Hyogo) and their coworkers have developed a new low-temperature vacuum X-ray camera (LTV X-ray camera) and installed it at the SPring-8 BL02B1 beamline (Fig. 4) for photo-excited crystallography, phase transition studies at low temperature, and micro-crystal structure analyses. By eliminating X-ray scattering from air and windows, high quality diffraction data with high S/N ratio can be automatically obtained down to 20 K. Direct observation of geometrical changes accompanied by photo-excitation of molecules provides essential information for transient species such as metastable states of chemical reactions. They have developed the multiple-exposure IP method for accurate measurement of intensity changes due to photo-illumination. A photo-excited molecular structure has been observed for the luminescent diplatinum(II) complex [Pt2(pop)4]4-.The observed electron density map shows positive and negative peaks with heights of 1–2 e/Å3 near the Pt atoms (Fig. 5). This indicates that small portions of the metal atoms move toward the positive peaks in the light-on crystal.

[Figure 5]Fig. 5 Difference Fourier map (superimposed with a molecular diagram) of |Fon|–|Foff| in a plane containing Pt(1)—Pt(2) vector and coordinated four P atoms of the ligands. Continuous lines and dashed lines indicate positive and negative density, drawn at every 0.2e/Å3, respectively.
The main subjects of H. Kobayashi (Inst. of Molecular Science) and A. Kobayashi (The Univ. of Tokyo) are: (1) development and physical properties of molecular metals and superconductors and (2) molecular design, development and physical properties of single-component molecular metals. Until the early 1990s they engaged in the development of various molecular superconductors including a k-type BEDT-TTF superconductor (k-(BEDT-TTF)2I3) and a p-acceptor (M(dmit)2, M=Ni, Pd) superconductor without TTF-like donors. Recently they have reported an organic conductors exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance and field-induced superconductivity, l-(BETS)2FeCl4 and the first antiferromagnetic organic superconductor, k-(BETS)2FeBr4 (BETS = Bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene). They have also developed a single-component molecular metal with extended-TTF (tetrathiafulvalene) ligands, [Ni(tmdt)2] (tmdt = trimethylenetetrathia fulvalenedithiolate). The planar molecules are closely packed and three-dimensional S…S interactions were observed in the crystal (Fig. 6). The room temperature conductivity was 400 S cm–1 and metallic behaviour was observed down to 0.6 K. Experimental evidence for the existence of Fermi surfaces was obtained by detecting the quantum oscillations in magnetization (the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect). Metallic [Au(tmdt)2] is iostructural with [Ni(tmdt)2] and has an unusually high temperature SDW antiferromagnetic transition at around 85 K.

[Figure 6]Fig.6 The molecular and crystal structure of [Ni(tmdt)2].
K. Tanaka (Nagoya Inst. of Technology) has reported 4f-electron transfer to B6 with a decrease in temperature in the study of the electron density distribution (EDD) analysis of the Kondo crystal CeB6 by X-ray atomic orbital methods. This analysis opened the door to many interesting heavy-atoms materials and they have tried to explain precise electron densities for high Tc super conductors, skutteldites and rare-earth garnets. Diffraction measurements under vacuum by the VCIP method is also being developed to get super accurate structure factors for retrieving molecular orbitals from X-ray diffraction.

[Figure 7]Fig. 7 Torsional motion and a conformational change through Pedal motion of (E)-stilbene.
The research activity of J. Mizuguchi and co-workers (Yokohama National Univ.) is focused on molecular structure, crystal structure and intermolecular interactions with potential electronic applications. Organic pigments are basically organic semiconductors which can be used in electronic materials such as photoconductors, electrophotographic photoreceptors, solar cells, optical recording materials, organic transistors etc.

[Figure 8]Fig. 8 Laplacian map of the five coordinated B compound.
Y. Sugawara (Kitasato Univ.), investigated humidity and temperature dependent phase transitions of nucleosides and nucleotide hydrates. Change in the numbers of water molecules or in their ordering at low temperature accompanies reconstruction of hydrogen-bonding networks. Structural transformations and dynamics of phase transitions are being examined using X-ray and neutron diffraction methods, Raman spectroscopy, and computer simulation calculations. These phenomena are interesting from the view points of crystal engineering, pseudopolymorphism of pharmaceuticals, and water structure in biological systems.

[Figure 9]Fig. 9 Mechanism of phase transition of 1-ethyl-3-(4-methylpentanoyl)urea.
K. Ogawa and J. Harada (The Univ. of Tokyo) have discovered a pedal motion in crystals (Fig. 7), an essential molecular motion of stilbene-type molecules. They have also been successful in providing new insight into the chromism of organic crystals.

[Figure 10]Fig. 10 Enantiomeric resolution of a racemic mixed crystal using preferential enrichment.
The main research interests of M. Yasui, F. Iwasaki (Univ. of Electro-Communications) and D. Hashizume (Riken) are: (1) weak intra and intermolecular interactions by a topological analysis of experimental charge density distributions, and (2) the mechanism of phase transitions of organic crystals using detailed temperature-resolved diffraction methods. Topological analyses for tetraazathiapentalenes, pentacoordinated hypervalent boron and carbon compounds show small positive Laplacian values at bond critical points which indicate the electrostatic character of these hypervalent bonds (Fig. 8). Analyses of intermolecular Br...Br contacts shorter than the normal van der Waals contacts revealed an electro-static interaction corresponding to the dispersion force. The magnitude of Br...Br interactions can be estimated to be about half of those of NH...O hydrogen bonds. They also studied intermolecular CH...O interactions in TEMPO radical derivatives. Topological properties prove that at least one H atom has a significant interaction with the p* orbital of the radical O atom which can explain intermolecular magnetic interaction. They have developed a ‘detailed temperature resolved diffraction method’ during the phase transition of organic crystals. This method can make the mechanism of the transition clear by looking at a set of stop-motion photographs. The mechanisms of phase transition of acylurea derivatives and thiocatechole crystals were clarified, and energy barriers of these transitions were estimated (Fig. 9).

R. Tamura (Kyoto Univ.) reported the first instance where enantiomeric resolution by simple recrystallization of a racemic crystal was observed. This unusual enantiomeric resolution phenomenon was referred to as preferential enrichment. Mechanistically, it has been proven that preferential enrichment is a secondary, dynamic enantiomeric resolution phenomenon caused by a solvent-assisted solid-to-solid transformation of a metastable polymorphic form into a thermodynamically stable polymorphic form. It occurs during crystallization of certain kinds of racemic mixed crystals composed of two enantiomers in a supersaturated solution. This phenomenon has been detected in (i) the crystal structures of the stable and metastable polymorphic forms (ii) by a direct-space approach employing the Monte Carlo method followed by Rietveld refinement, (iii) in the in situ ATR-FTIR (ReactIR) spectral data during crystallization, and (iv) in the DSC analytical and solid-state ReactIR spectral data of the deposited crystals (Fig. 10).

R. Kuroda’s research group (Univ. of Tokyo) explores and exploits solid-state chiral chemistry. In crystals, interactions between molecules are expected to be orders of magnitude stronger than in solution. Thus, it is safe to assume that chiral discrimination, recognition, generation and transfer occur most strongly in the solid state. They have studied chirality recognition in solvent-free, solid-solid reactions. Upon co-grinding and heating (without melting) of the crystals of a template compound and a substrate compound, the chirality of the substrate compound was inverted to fit with the chirality of the template compound. They have developed two novel instruments, UCS-1 (Universal Chiroptical Spectrophotometer) and UCS-2, for measuring the chirality of solid materials.

Today, many scientists in Japan, whose main research involves organic or coordination chemistry, have their own diffractometers. Apart from the above examples, splendid work is going on related to chemical crystallography, such as, multicolor phototropism of single crystals by M. Irie (Kyushu Univ.), solid-solid synthesis using host-guest interactions by F. Toda (Okayama Univ. of Science) and K. Tanaka (Kansai Univ.), inclusion phenomena of choric acids by M. Miyata (Osaka Univ.), and synthesis of organic semiconductors with metallic luster by K. Ogura (Chiba Univ.).

F. Iwasaki, Univ. Electro-communication

Materials science

[Figure 11]Fig. 11. A double shell of platonic solids formed by pentagonal-podecahedral La2 charge density in [80-Ih] fullerene: La2@C80
Structural science of materials in Japan is studied not only by crystallographers but also by materials scientists, physicists, chemists and many other researchers in science and technology. This report cannot be expected to cover all the aspects of structural science of materials in Japan but a few aspects of the field give some flavor of our country.

[Figure 12]Fig. 12 Residual factors of Eu3S4 against the mole ratio of Eu2+ ions occupied in the 4a sites in the I-42d structure.
In 1991, S. Iijima and coworkers (NEC Co. LTD.) reported a structure of a nanotube. There are many varieties, such as multi-wall, double-wall, and single-wall carbon nanotubes. These structures are mainly determined by TEM. Structural studies of nanotubes by X-ray are also active in Japan. One of the interesting properties of nanotubes is an inner hollow cavity of nanometer size. Kataura and coworkers reported that a one-dimensional crystal of fullerene molecules were found inside the nanotubes. Takenouchi and coworkers suggested that the nanotube absorbed not only fullerene molecules but also exotic molecules like TCNQ and TMTSF.

[Figure 13]Fig. 13 A new furnace for high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction study up to 1900K (BL-3A@PF). Isosurface of electron density distribution of the cubic calcium titanate perovskite (1674K). J. Appl. Cryst. 37, 786 (2004).
Another nano-structured carbon material, for which structures are mainly determined in Japan, is metallo-fullerene. M. Sakata, M. Takata and coworkers confirmed the endohedral nature of metallo-fullerene by X-ray powder diffraction at SPring-8. Since then, the structures of endohedral metallofullerenes have shown very unique structures including the disordered states of two La atoms in a C80 carbon cage (Fig. 11).

[Figure 14]Fig. 14 Nuclear density distribution, disorder and the diffusion path of oxide ions in superionic conductors. Chem. Phys. Lett., 378, 395, 380, 391 (2003).
J. Akimitsu and coworkers (Aoyama Gakuin Univ.) discovered that MgB2 has one of the highest transition temperature (Tc = 39 K) of the known metallic superconductors. The superconductivity relating the BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) mechanism has a superconducting energy gap associated with formation of the superconducting pairs. T. Takahashi (Tokyo Univ.) and S. Sasaki (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) suggested the existence of two kinds of superconducting gaps in MgB2 on the basis of an ARPES (angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) study, where the σ and surface bands have large gaps of 6-7 meV and the σ band is dominant in the superconductivity with a stronger coupling to phonons. The electron-phonon coupling in MgB2 causes the high Tc in a particular phonon mode with the E2g symmetry at Γ. The electron-phonon coupling is only possible for phonons with momenta appropriate to move electrons within the neighborhood of a Fermi surface. The softening and broadening of the E2g mode were observed inside the σ surfaces, by using a highly efficient X-ray spectrometer with a 4 meV resolution at SPring-8. K. Ohshima and coworkers reported a Kohn anomaly in TaS2 from the phonon dispersion curves.

Charge ordering and charge fluctuation of mixed-valence compounds are commonly investigated in Japanese universities and governmental insitutes. The valence-difference contrast method with X-ray anomalous scattering and electron-microscopic techniques are used for materials such as RM2O5 (R: Y or a rare earth; M = Mn, Fe) by Y. Yamada, and K. Kohn (Waseda Univ.), La1-xSrxMnO3 by H. Sawa (Photon Factory), Fe3O4 by S. Sasaki (Tokyo Inst. of Technology), CuIr2S4 by H. Ishibashi (Osaka Prefecture Univ.), Pr1-xCaxMnO3 and Nd1-xSrxMnO4 by Y. Matsui (National Inst. for Materials Science(NIMS)), CaFeO3 by S. Morimoto (Osaka Univ.), NaV2O5 by Y. Fujii (Univ. of Tokyo), and La1-x(Ba,Sr)xCuO4 by Y. Noda (Tohoku Univ.). An example of the research by Noda is Eu3S4, where Eu2+ and Eu3+, in a tetragonal cell below Tc = 188.5 K, occupy 4a and 8d sites, having the cation distribution of [Eu3+]4a[Eu2+Eu3+]8dS4.as shown in Fig. 12.

X-ray resonant magnetic scattering was found for Ni single crystals by K. Namikawa (Tokyo Gakugei Univ.) in 1985. Resonant magnetic scattering factors were then obtained from experimental data from Fe3O4 by H. Kawata (Photon Factory) and coworkers. Systematic work on nonresonant magnetic scattering has been devoted to metallic and simple oxides by M. Ito (Gunma Univ.). The resonant X-ray scattering technique has been proved to be a powerful probe of orbital states, and is now being applied to a wide range of systems with improved accuracy. One example is the case of La0.45Sr0.55MnO3/La0.6Sr0.4MnO3 multilayers reported by M. Izumi (NIMS).

The horizontal-type high-speed four-circle diffractometer at beam line 14A at the Photon Factory has been used in a number of electron density studies. Recently a high-speed detector called a stacked avalanche photodiode detector (APD) was employed with the collaboration of S. Kishimoto (Photon factory) and N. Ishizawa (Nagoya Inst. Tech). Studies of La(Sr)2CuO4 and MnS2 revealed an enhanced accuracy of the experimentally determined electron densities.

Micro-beams obtained by using synchrotron radiation are powerful tools. Interplanetary dust particles and meteorites are usually examined by optical microscopy, chemical analysis, micro Raman spectroscopy, and so on. The lower limit of the area for these examinations is about a micrometer. Diffraction data from the same samples is indispensable especially in cases of polymorphs and polytypes. Interplanetary dust particles of iron sulfides and micrometer-sized areas of the same kind in a thin section of meteorite are identified, and the structure is refined based on intensities of the Laue spots obtained by using polychromatic synchrotron radiation at the Photon Factory by K. Ohsumi.

High-resolution synchrotron powder diffractometers are available at beam line 4B2 of the Photon Factory (δd/d=0.04%) and at the BL15XU of SPring-8 (δd/d=0.03%). Two angle-dispersive-type neutron powder diffractometers (HRPD) and HERMES are installed at the JRR-3M research reactor in JAERI. There are two time-of-flight (TOF) neutron powder diffractometers (Sirius and VEGA) at KENS of KEK in Tsukuba. The KENS facility will be shut down soon, but a new powerful neutron facility (JSNS at J-PARC) has been built. At the JSNS, a new high-resolution TOF neutron powder diffractometer will be installed. At the Ceramics Research Laboratory, Nagoya Inst. Tech., the profile functions of powder diffraction data are characterized by T. Ida. F. Izumi (NISM) developed computer programs for Rietveld analysis, maximum-entropy methods and visualization of crystal structure and electron/nuclear density distribution. The superspace group approach to structure analysis of composite crystals has been a successful collaboration between NIMS and Tohoku Univ. T. Ikeda (Tohoku Univ.) analyzed the crystal structures and properties of synthesized zeolites through ab-initio computational methods.

M. Yashima (Tokyo Inst. Tech.) and coworkers have been studying high-temperature neutron and synchrotron powder diffraction techniques for precise structure analysis up to 1900 K. By using the furnace diffusion path, the disorder in some ceramic superionic conductors were visualized (Fig. 13).

Coordinated by Kazumasa Ohsumi
(kazumasa.ohsumi@kek.jp) and
Matt Sakata (sakata@cc.nagoya-u.ac.jp) 

High-pressure activity

[Figure 15]Fig. 15 High pressure-temperature phase diagram of GaN determined by in situ X-ray observation. Congruent melting of GaN occurs at high pressures above 6 GPa [1]. Inserted figure is a SEM image of the GaN single crystals obtained by slow cooling from congruent melting at high pressure.
For high pressure studies, a large volume press and diamond anvil cell (DAC) are used. There are two types of large volume presses; one is a DIA type cubic anvil system and the other is a Kawai type double stage anvil system.

[Figure 16]Fig. 16 Atomic arrangements of perovskite type (low pressure phase; left) and post-perovskite type (high pressure phase; right) structures[2].
The DIA type apparatus, MAX80 at the Photon Factory and SMAP-180 at SPring-8, can generate a pressure and temperature around 10 GPa and 2000K, and it is mainly used for materials science. Recent work with SMAP-180 involved the observation of congruent melting of GaN under high pressure and temperature [1]. Fig. 15 shows the phase boundaries of GaN obtained at high pressure and temperature. This observation enables one to obtain bulk single crystals of GaN by slow cooling from a high pressure congruent melt. GaN, a famous green fluorescent material, had so far been made only in thin films. Another exciting result is finding the pressure induced first order transition in liquid states. Phosphorus was found to show a clear first order transition at around 1 GPa and 1000K (Y. Katayama, SPring-8/JAERI). This was confirmed by measurements of XAFS, density, X-ray diffraction and X-ray transmission imaging at the transition. Density was measured by X-ray absorbance by filling the sample in a sapphire or diamond ring. A sharp liquid-liquid transition in liquid germanate accompanied by a fourfold to six fold coordination change was also found around 3 GPa at 1273 K(3) (O. Ohtaka, Osaka Univ.)

The first Kawai type press for SR study named SPEED1500 can generate pressure and temperature around 30 GPa and 2000K with tungsten carbide anvils, and will be used to study the interior of the earth across the lower mantle region. The first result using SPEED 1500 is the determination of the phase boundary of Mg2SiO4 (T. Irifune, Ehime Univ.). Assuming a geotherm of 1650K, dissociation pressure is estimated to be 21GPa, which is apparently lower than the previous result. This was a sensational result to understand the upper to lower mantle structures.

In order to extend the pressure range, a new system named SPEED Mk-II using sintered diamond anvils was developed at SPring-8. At room temperature, pressure generation higher than 60GPa can be routinely achieved. SPEED Mk-II has an oscillation mechanism to avoid the effect of preferred orientation and grain growth. With this oscillation mechanism, the diffraction profiles of NaCl were clearly observed with reasonable integrated intensities very close to the melting temperature, and the phase relations among the B1, B2 and liquid phases are precisely determined (N. Nishiyama, Ehime Univ.).

A unique technique with SR is viscosity measurements using a falling ball method. An image is recorded each 1/125 second and the linear part of the falling distance against time is fit to give an accurate viscosity. Sulfur content dependence in the Fe-FeS system is clearly seen, as well as temperature dependence.

We recently succeeded in measuring ultrasonic velocity at high pressure and temperature. A transducer is set outside the anvil to prevent damage by pressure and temperature. The length of the sample is measured directly by a transmission image of the sample using a CCD camera, and volume and pressure are measured by X-ray diffraction. With this technique, concentration dependence of bulk and shear moduli for ringwoodite are beautifully observed, which agrees very well with finite strain fitting simulations (Y. Higo, Ehime Univ.).

At dedicated DAC stations (BL10XU at SPring-8) one can perform high and low temperature diffraction experiments. Strongly correlated materials, nano-materials, etc. are extensively studied by using the quasi hydrostatic pressure medium of He. Structural behaviors of simple materials such as Sc, BeO, Hg, Cs, H2, O2, and LiH are investigated in the ultra high pressure region above 200GPa.

High temperature experiments with DAC are performed by use of a laser heated DAC. The characteristics of the system at SPring-8 are dual lasers (YAG and YLF) and dual detectors (IP for precise measurement and CCD for rapid measurement). The most exciting result with laser heated DAC is the structural phase transition of MgSiO3 at 125GPa and 2400K[2]. The structure of the lower pressure phase is a well known perovskite type structure with apical sharing. The structure of the high pressure phase, which is explained by a Cmcm structure type, is unique in that it is a layered type two dimensional one (Fig. 16). This pressure and temperature condition corresponds to the mantle to core boundary of the Earth, and this result is believed to help clarify the structure of earth’s core.

Other experiments using DAC such as nuclear X-ray scattering, inelastic scattering, infrared spectroscopy, etc. are performed at each general beamline.

The high pressure neutron group, headed by H. Kagi (Tokyo Univ.) submitted a proposal for the construction of a high pressure system consisting of a DIA type high pressure cell to J-PARC. The proposal is on the waiting list.

Osamu Shimomura, simomura@spring8.or.jp

References

[1] W. Utsumi, H. Saitoh, H. Kaneko, T. Watanuki, K. Aoki and O. Shimomura. Nature Mater. 2, 735 (2003).
[2] M. Murakami, K. Hirose, K. Kawamura, N. Sata and Y. Ohishi, Science 305, 855 (2004).

Electron diffraction

The electron microscope is unique in that it enables us to simultaneously conduct experiments in diffractometry, microscopy and spectroscopy on a nanometer scale.

Tsuda et al.[1] developed a method to refine crystal structural parameters and charge density using convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED). The method is based on a least-squares fit between full dynamical calculations and energy-filtered intensities from two-dimensional higher-order Laue zone (HOLZ) and zeroth-order Laue zone (ZOLZ) CBED patterns. Application of this method to the rhombohedral phase of LaCrO3 revealed clear anisotropy of thermal vibration of the oxygen atoms and charge transfer from the metal atoms to the oxygen atoms. With the aid of parallel computations, the structure (30 positional parameters and Debye-Waller factors) of the intermediate phase of hexagonal BaTiO3 was refined. In the orbital ordering phase of LaMnO3, the anisotropic charge distribution caused by orbital ordering of the 3d-electrons of the Mn atoms was found.

Fujiyoshi et al.[2] developed a high-resolution electron cryo-microscope equipped with a top-entry specimen stage. Using the microscope, they determined the atomic structures of several membrane proteins with the use of two-dimensional (2D) and tubular crystals. Image shifts due to beam-induced specimen charging were found to be the most severe problem in imaging of biological macromolecular 2D crystals, especially at highly specimen tilt conditions. To reduce beam-induced movement, Gyobu et al. developed a new sample preparation method, the carbon sandwich method, in which the crystals are put between two carbon films. This method has improved the success ratio of obtaining high-resolution images from tilted specimens, namely from 30 to 90% at a tilt angle of 45 degrees. The method enabled them to collect a full data set (87.0% complete) of aquaporin-4 (AQP4), a water channel protein, and to conduct the structural analysis at 3.2 Å resolution with a Friedel factor and merging R-factor of 11.4 % and 22.3 %, respectively.

Nagayama et al.[3] developed a series of transmission electron microscopes (TEM) capable of retrieving object-retarding phases in electron waves. The Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) method uses a classical π/2 phase plate in the form originally developed by Zernike. The Hilbert differential contrast (HDC) method uses a half-plane π phase plate to generate images similar to the differential-interference-contrast conveniently used in light microscopy. The Foucault differential contrast (FDC) method uses dynamical control for a Foucault knife-edge to perform an accurate differential operation for phases involved in the wave function of electrons. The remarkable high contrast achieved with these phase contrast TEMs without sample staining is now opening a novel field of in vivo electron microscopy in biology.

Matsui et al.[4] carried out intensive structural studies of various new superconductors by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). They found incommensurate superstructures in Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 superconducting phases, and proposed modulated structure models with strongly distorted lattice planes. They developed a new high-voltage (1300kV) HRTEM with an 0.1nm point-resolution and used it to identify new oxycarbonate superconductors which contain CO3 groups forming various types of order/disorder structures. Since new phenomena of colossal magnetoresistivity (CMR) were reported, Matsui et al. also studied the magnetic nanostructures of various magnetic materials by cryo-Lorentz electron microscopy.[5] They examined the formation of ferromagnetic domains in a “double-perovskite” Ba2MoFeO6, and proved that the crystallographic anti-phase boundaries tend to pin the ferromagnetic domains.

Saitoh et al.[6] applied HAADF-STEM and ALCHEMI to quasicrystals and their approximants for the first time. Using the HAADF-STEM method, they first observed an asymmetric atom-cluster and a high degree of quasiperiodic arrangement of clusters in decagonal Al72Ni20Co8, which led to the quasi-unit-cell model. Using the two-dimensional angular-scanning ALCHEMI, Saitoh et al. also found that, in decagonal Al-Ni-Co and Al-Ni-Fe, two kinds of transition metal elements occupy the same sublattice site (chemical disorder), which is compatible with the fact that the quasicrystals are stabilized by the Hume-Rothery mechanism.

Abe et al.[7] demonstrated the real-space imaging of a local thermal vibration anomaly in a solid through atomic-resolution annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) observations of an Al72Ni20Co8 quasicrystal. They found significant changes of the ADF intensity at some Al atomic sites, which depend on the observation temperature and the scattering angle range. This anomalous ADF intensity, which is due to an anomaly of the thermal diffuse scattering (TDS) intensity, is explained fairly well by an anomalously large value of the temperature (Debye-Waller) factor of Al at the sites or by a larger mean-square thermal vibration amplitude of the atoms. By introducing angle-resolved and/or in-situ heating/cooling techniques, they have extended the ADF-STEM method as a tool to determine local Debye-Waller factors that crucially affect the physical properties of materials.

Suenaga et al.[8] demonstrated chemical analysis by means of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with a sensitivity of a single atom limit and the high-resolution imaging of individual metallofullerene molecules encapsulated in a single-wall carbon nanotube. They directly observed nanotubes composed of single-graphene layers and their structural defects using phase contrast transmission electron microscopy.

Takayanagi et al.[9] developed an ultra-high vacuum electron microscope combined with a scanning tunneling microscope to study structure and electronic conductance quantization of gold atomic chains and nanowires. They observed that a gold atomic chain, which was fabricated between the gold STM tip and the gold substrate, has the conductance quantum of 2e2/h, where e is electron charge and h is the Planck constant. They found gold nanowires having single-wall and multi-wall tubular structures (helical multi-shell magic number seven structure).

Using electron holography, Hirayama et al.[10] observed two-dimensional electric potential distributions in a cross section of a Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor (MOSFET) fabricated from a silicon wafer with a boron concentration of 1015cm-3. This implies that electron holography allows the two-dimensional mapping of dopant distributions as low as 1015cm-3. This technique is useful for developing new devices for failure analysis in the semiconductor industry.

Kimoto et al.[11] applied electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) to the analysis of an ultra-thin film of amorphous-Al2O3 on Si. EEL spectra were successfully acquired with a small interval of 0.28 nm in depth using their spatially-resolved technique. From the spectra, they found different Al coordinations of an AlO4 tetrahedron and an AlO6 octahedron with the aid of first-principle calculations. They revealed the detailed depth dependence of Al coordination in the film with sub-nanometer resolution.

Terauchi et al.[12] constructed a high energy-resolution EELS microscope equipped with a Wien-filter monochromator and a Wien-filter analyzer. The EELS microscope was used to measure the bandgap energies and the density of states (DOS) of the conduction bands of BN nano-cones and metal-doped boron micro-crystals with energy resolutions of 0.2-0.26eV. Terauchi et al. have developed a high resolution soft-X-ray spectrometer for X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) for a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This instrument enables us to obtain the DOS of the valence band with an energy resolution better than 1ev from a small specimen area identified by observing an electron microscope image. They demonstrated using h-BN that the total DOS of the valence and conduction bands can be obtained in the electron microscope from XES and EELS spectra.

Michiyoshi Tanaka
(tanakam@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp)

References

[1] K. Tsuda and M. Tanaka, Acta Cryst., A55 (1999) 939-954.
[2] Y. Fujiyoshi, Adv. Biophys. 35 (1998) 25-80.
[3] R. Danev and K. Nagayama, Ultramicroscopy 88 (2001) 243-252.
[4] Y. Matsui et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27, L372 (1988).
[5] Y. Anan et al., J. Electron Microsc. 50, 457 (2001).
[6] K. Saitoh, K. Tsuda, M. Tanaka, K. Kaneko, A. P. Tsai, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 36 (1997) L1400.
[7] E. Abe, S. J. Pennycook and A. P. Tsai, Nature 421 (2003) 347-350.
[8] K. Suenaga et al., Science, 290 (2000) 2280-2282.
[9] H.Ohnishi et al., Nature 395 (1998) 780-782.
[10] Z. Wang, T. Hirayama, K. Sasaki, H. Saka and N. Kato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 246-248.
[11] K. Kimoto et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 83 (2003) 4306-4308.
[12] M.Terauchi, M.Tanaka, K.Tsuno and M.Ishida, J. Microscopy, 194 (1999), 203-209.

XAFS activities

[Figure 17]Fig. 17 Fourier transformed spectra of Pd K-edge EXAFS oscillations of the Pd-perovskite catalyst at oxidized, reduced and re-oxidized states together with that of a Pd foil.
XAFS activities in Japan started in 1982. The EXAFS beamline BL-10B, one of the first beamlines constructed at the Photon Factory (PF), is equipped with a Si(311) channel-cut type monochromator without any focusing optics. A number of papers for structural analysis of materials have been published using data from this beamline. New XAFS beamlines constructed include a sagittal focusing double crystal monochromator (BL-7B), and a Si(111) double crystal monochromator with curved cylindrical mirrors both up- and down-stream of the monochromator. Several upgrades of the PF ring lowered the emittance to 27 nm rad.

[Figure 18]Fig. 18 The Fourier transformed spectra of Rh K-edge EXAFS oscillations of Rh/Al2O3 during the carbonylation process at 298 K measured every 100 ms.
SPring-8, a third generation hard X-ray 8 GeV ring has two beamlines dedicated to XAFS experiments; BL-1B at the bending magnet port and BL-10XU in an undulator port. The former has been used for XAFS experiments in the higher energy region extending to 100 keV, and the latter for focused (0.1-1 mm2), high photon flux XAFS with more than 1013 photons/s. The later beamline is especially useful for XAFS under high pressures. Micro XAFS experiments are conducted at BL37XU using Kirpatrick and Baez (K-B) mirror optics. The beam size was 2 (H) × 4 (V) μm2, with a flux of more than 1010 photons/s at 10 keV.

[Figure 19]Fig. 19 An illustrative mechanism for the disintegration of an Rh cluster on γ-Al2O3 by CO adsorption.
Another 6 GeV storage ring in KEK, which had been used as a booster ring for the TRISTAN main ring (25 GeV), has been renewed as a high current ring with a single bunch mode dedicated for synchrotron radiation use. This is especially useful for time resolved XAFS. In the AR facility, the dispersive XAFS technique was installed, which enables one to measure EXAFS in less than 1 ms. Quick XAFS is also under construction and will be dedicated to structure analysis of catalysts.

One unique feature of XAFS activities is that the laboratory XAFS instruments are prevailing in Japan. TECHNOS I.T Co. Ltd and RIGAKU Co. have independently developed compact XAFS instruments equipped with an X-ray tube. By using a Johansson-type curved crystal, EXAFS measurements can be taken in a reasonable time; typically, 20 min for Cu K-EXAFS of a Cu foil.

There are more than 150 users of XAFS experiments in Japan. The society of XAFS was organized in 2000. Its annual meetings attract more than 100 participants. More than 50% of its members specialize in catalysis and 15% are from industry.

Although XAFS studies are diverse in various fields, two recent highlights:

(1) Self-regeneration of a Pd-perovskite catalyst for automotive emission control. Catalytic conversion of exhaust gases is an essential part of automobiles. Recently, the Japanese motor company, Daihatsu Co. developed an intelligent conversion catalyst, LaFe0.75Co0.38Pd0.05O3, perovskite-based catalysts which has a much longer lifetime than the conventional catalyst, Pd/Al2O3. The structural change of the perovskite catalyst was studied in SPring-8 by using Pd and Co K-edge XAFS as well as X-ray diffraction (Y. Nihshihata et al. Nature 418, 164 (2002)) Fig. 17 shows the Fourier transformed spectra of Pd K-edge EXAFS oscillations of the sample at oxidized, reduced and re-oxidized states together with that of a Pd foil. In the oxidized state, Pd is surrounded by oxygen, while in the reduced state, Pd is surrounded by Co and Pd. Combined with the XRD data, it revealed that Pd is in the B-site (octahedral site) of the perovskite lattice in the oxidized stateand in the reduced state, Pd is segregated with Co to form a PdCo solid solution. This process is reversible and explains the retention of high catalytic activity during long-term use and aging.

(2) Little has been known about the dynamical structural change of active metal sites in supported metal cluster/nanoparticles catalysts. The in-situ time resolved XAFS study of a CO-induced disintegration process of Rh clusters on an Al2O3 surface was performed at PF (Suzuki et. al, Ang. Chem. Int. Ed. 42 (2003) 4795). Rh K-edge EXAFS of an Rh/Al2O3 catalyst was taken under 26.7 kPa of CO at 298 K every 100 ms with the energy dispersive mode. Fig. 18 shows a series of Fourier transforms calculated during the carbonylation process. The peak at 0.2 nm (Rh-Rh) suddenly reduces and the peak at 0.1 nm (Rh-C) increases rapidly. Analysis of the coordination number and bond distances (Rh-Rh, Rh-C) as a function of CO exposure reveals that there are three elementary steps for the surface dynamic structural rearrangement of Rh clusters involving two intermediate states as depicted in Fig. 19. Before CO exposure, each Rh cluster consists of seven atoms in the first layer and three atoms in the second layer on Al2O3. CO exposure causes Rh-CO bond formation for the second layer in 600 ms, and further CO exposure induces Rh-CO bond formation with cluster disintegration and finally each Rh atom adsorbs in the threefold hollow site, forming Rh(CO)2. These results demonstrate that dispersive XAFS is useful to elucidate the mechanism for dynamic surface processes.

Toshiaki Ohta (ohta@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp)

This extract from 50 Years of X-ray Diffraction, edited by P. P. Ewald and published in 1962, recounts the early development of crystallography in this region.

[pdf icon]CHAPTER 23

Japan

by I. Nitta

As described in Part V, the history of fifty years of X-ray diffraction in Japan was inaugurated by T. Terada, who found in 1913, immediately after Laue's discovery and also quite independently of W. L. Bragg, the law of X-ray reflection based on his original visual as well as photographic observation of the movement of the Laue spots as the crystal was being turned.1 In his diffraction experiments using an X-ray bulb of the Müller-Uri type operated with a Toepler influence machine, he examined single crystals of rocksalt, fluorite, quartz, mica, gypsum, borax, tourmaline, epidote, penninite, cane sugar, etc. For the visual observation with a fluorescent screen he used a very wide beam of X-rays collimated by a diaphragm with a circular aperture 5-10 mm in diameter. Terada continued his diffraction studies for about one year, investigating the effect of the bending of rocksalt2 and analyzing to some extent the crystal structure of alum.3

The second name appearing in this history is that of S. Nishikawa, of whom we have spoken in detail in Part V and whose rôle was of primary importance to the progress of diffraction studies in Japan. As already mentioned, Nishikawa published in 1913 his first paper, with S. Ono, on the study of diffraction photographs of fibrous substances such as asbestos, silk and asa (Cannabis sativa - a kind of hemp), of lamellar substances like talc and mica, and of granular substances such as marble, finely pulverized rocksalt, quartz, etc., using continuous X-rays.4 Moreover, Nishikawa studied diffraction patterns of rolled sheets of metals such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., and the effect of annealing them. Such a study is nothing other than that of the diffraction characteristics of polycrystalline textures, which has later found many applications in the fields of metallography, polymer science and other sciences. His earliest introduction of the theory of space groups as a general and logical means for crystal analysis appeared in his paper in 1915 on the crystal structure of some crystals of the spinel group and magnetite.5 In this way began the first page of the history of X-ray diffraction in Japan.

Now, in order to describe the development, it may be convenient first to name the schools or the regional research groups in more or less the chronological order of their origin. These include the Nishikawa school, the Honda school, the Kyoto school, the Ito school in Tokyo, the Osaka school, the Hiroshima school and the Nagoya school. Besides these, there may be given names of individuals who were known to be active in the early period. They are G. Asahara, S. Kôzu, A. Ono and others.

We begin briefly with the Nishikawa school in Tokyo, as it has already been described in Part V in some detail. In the early twenties, within the so-called Nishikawa Laboratory in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Nishikawa was engaged in analysing some orthorhombic crystals by means of an ionization chamber spectrometer, and his early students, Y. Sakisaka, I. Nitta, Z. Ooe and S. Shimura carried out structure analyses of crystals of organic compounds, minerals and compounds of metallographic importance. A little later, Nishikawa, Sakisaka and I. Sumoto, using a double crystal spectrometer as well as Laue photographs, investigated the effects of various physical treatments of crystals on the reflection intensities from the point of view of extinction and crystal imperfection. Thus they investigated the effect of surface grinding,6 that of thermal strain or inhomogeneous temperature distribution,7 and that of piezoelectric vibration.8 Such investigations were later extended by his students, E. Fukushima, Y. Kakiuchi, S. Miyake, S. Yoshida and others. Fukushima studied the effect of inhomogeneous elastic deformations under an external force.9 Kakiuchi examined that of long impressed strong electric fields.10 Miyake observed an anomalous change in the intensity of reflection from Rochelle salt on passing the Curie point.11 Yoshida found that the relative intensities of X-ray spectral lines changed with the degree of imperfection of the crystal used for spectrometry.12 T. Muto made a theoretical calculation of the intensity of reflection from an alloy with a disordered structure.13

Since Kikuchi's experiments of electron diffraction by crystals carried out in the Nishikawa Laboratory in 1928, most of Nishikawa's students in the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research and in the Department of Physics of the University of Tokyo turned to this field. Thus K. Matsukawa, M. Miwa, T. Muto, T. Yamaguti, K. Shinohara, S. Nakagawa, S. Miyake, Ryozi Uyeda and others played important parts in the development of wide studies on electron diffraction by crystals. Shinohara noticed that, in order to elucidate the observed Kikuchi-lines, -envelopes and -bands, one should start from the dynamical theory put forward by Bethe.14 Besides Kikuchi, Shinohara and Nakagawa, T. Yamaguti also determined precisely the inner potentials of a series of crystals by the rotating crystal method with a knife-edge.15 The interesting complexities of electron diffraction by crystals led Miyake and Uyeda to study very keenly and thoroughly the dynamical theory developed by Bethe, Harding, Laue and others. Their effort had a very favourable influence upon the later development of younger students, and there was gradually formed a strong electron diffraction group. Of the younger students graduating before 1945, the names of S. Takagi, K. Kimoto, G. Honjo, H. Yoshioka, K. Kohra, N. Kato and Y. Kainuma will be given. To the experimental development too, contributions of Miyake and Uyeda have been made in various respects. The instrumentation for the study of electron diffraction has been greatly improved by them before and after the War. In this connection it may be added that the manufacture of electron microscopes in Japan has greatly benefited from the cooperation of electron diffraction scientists possessing long and valuable experiences. As for theoretical development, there have been published important papers on such topics as the problem of simultaneous reflection, including the violation of Friedel's law (Miyake, Uyeda and Kohra); an anomalous phenomenon found by Kikuchi and Nakagawa (Miyake, Mieko Takagi and Kohra); determination of phase angles (Miyake and K. Kambe); dynamical theory for a finite polyhedral crystal (Uyeda and Kato), explanation of Kikuchi patterns (Kainuma) ; theory of absorption (Yoshioka); effect of thermal vibration (S. Takagi), etc.

The Nishikawa school, which had started as an important center of X-ray diffraction, changed its character, as described above, to become an active center of electron diffraction. In the meantime the school branched in many lines. Thus in 1933 Kikuchi and Nitta went to Osaka University, with the former beginning nuclear research and the latter continuing X-ray diffraction work. Around 1940 Miyake entered the Kobayashi Institute of Physical Research, Tokyo, and there he carried out X-ray and electron diffraction studies. In 1948 he became a professor of physics at the Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, and led a group of scientists in both fields of X-ray and electron diffraction. Honjo, Mrs. Mieko Takagi (formerly Miss Mieko Kubo), S. Hoshino and others were the members of the group. Uyeda remained in the University of Tokyo up to 1942, when he became a professor of physics at the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nagoya University. There he formed the Nagoya school which is very active in the field of electron diffraction. Among the scientists of the Nagoya school the names of Kimoto, Yoshioka, Kato and Kainuma have already been given above. Speaking of the Nagoya school, it is to be added that a colleague of Uyeda, Y. Morino (1908- ) began a series of electron diffraction studies of gas molecules with M. Kimura and others. Morino became later a professor of chemistry at the University of Tokyo. Coming back once again to Miyake, he became very recently a research professor at the newly established Institute for Solid State Physics, which is attached to the University of Tokyo, and is working there with his colleagues, Y. Saito, S. Hosoya, S. Hoshino and others.

In the Tokyo region, G. Asahara (1891- ) was active, in the early period under review, as the leader of the Asahara Laboratory, Chemistry Division, Institute of Physical and Chemical Research. As mentioned in Part V, Nishikawa and Asahara began the X-ray study of metals at Cornell University in 1920. On returning to his Institute in Tokyo, Asahara soon published his X-ray studies of graphite and amorphous carbon16 and of thallium.17 Of his research group, H. Nakamura examined by means of X-rays the structure of electrolytic brass,18 and T. Sasahara studied the solid solution system KCl-KBr19 and also the structure of α-thallium.20 Tokunosuké Watanabé (1904- ) determined the crystal structure of northupite, brominated northupite and tychite.21 By the time he published this paper, Asahara had retired from the Institute and had been succeeded by H. Shiba. Besides the two groups of Nishikawa and Asahara, M. Majima, S. Togino and K. Yamaguchi in the Engineering Division of this Institute were also active in carrying out X-ray studies of metals. S. Yamaguchi made independently a series of electron diffraction studies of metals and chemical reactions on their surfaces.

Next to the above groups in Tokyo, it will be appropriate to turn to the Sendai region, where the Tôhoku University is located. The application of the X-ray method was first attempted by S. Kôzu (1880-1955), a professor of petrology of the Faculty of Science, Tôhoku University. In collaboration with Y. Endö, a physicist, he began in 1921 his notable X-ray study of the felspar group, especially adularia and moonstone.22 Later Kôzu and K. Takané made structure determination of cancrinite, bronzite, vesuvianite, diaspore, enargite, etc.23 In the Research Institute for Iron, Steel and Other Metals, founded by K. Honda (1870-1954) and attached to Tôhoku University, the X-ray method was introduced by M. Yamada. The first two X-ray papers by Yamada published in 1923 were a note on the reflection of X-rays from a fluorite crystal24 and on the occlusion of hydrogen in palladium.25 As is well known, Honda led in his Institute a large number of scientists in the fields of metallurgy, metallography and physics of magnetism for a long period of time. He was also one of the sponsors of the Zeitschrift für Kristallographie. Honda's students who were engaged in X-ray metallographic studies are, besides M. Yamada and Y. Endö mentioned above, A. Ôsawa, S. Sekito, S. Ôya, K. Endo, T. Sutoki, Z. Nishiyama and many others. They made use of the X-ray diffraction method for the identification or confirmation of a definite phase, for the determination of equilibrium phase diagrams, the study of occlusion of gases in metals, solid solution formation, phase transformation, etc. E. Matsuyama improved the high-temperature camera, and I. Edamoto constructed an X-ray tube with oscillating target. I. Obinata, who had made an X-ray study of the β-phase of Cu-Al alloy at the Ryojun College of Engineering and then worked with E. Schmid and G. Wassermann at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Metallforschung on the solid solubility in the Pb-Sn system, the plastic deformation of metal single crystals, etc., joined the Honda school. Shiro Ogawa (1912- ), who is known with M. Hirabayashi, D. Watanabe and others for his studies of antiphase domains of some alloys, is leading the research group of X-ray and electron diffraction in the Institute.

In Kyushu University X-ray work dates back to 1922, when A. Ono (1882- ), at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, attempted an X-ray examination of the inner structure of strained metals such as copper, aluminium, and α-iron from the standpoint of material testing. The results of this investigation were reported in a series of papers from 1922 to 1930.26 In his third report in 1925 he noted that the findings of G. I. Taylor and C. F. Elam (1925) and of M. Polanyi and E. Schmid (1925) about the slip resistance of crystals stood in conformity with his view concerning the cause of strain-hardening.

Kyoto University did not stand behind in the introduction of the X-ray method to various fields of scientific studies. This was mainly by virtue of M. Ishino and U. Yoshida in the Department of Physics, College of Science. Thus in 1925 S. Tanaka (1895- ) and T. Fujiwara (1897- ), students of Yoshida, published, respectively, papers on the X-ray study of the polycrystalline texture of rolled platinum sheet27 and of aluminium and copper wires.28 In 1927 Yoshida proposed some experimental devices which facilitate the determination of the orientation of crystal axes.29 Yoshida introduced many students to the X-ray investigation of metallurgical and various other problems. Such students are K. Tanaka, J. Tsutsumi, S. Shimadzu, G. Okuno, K. Hutino, M. Kabata, S. Nagata and others. H. Hirata, G. Shinoda, and C. Matano of Kyoto University are also known for their X-ray studies, mainly of metallographical and metallurgical problems, during the decade around 1930. I. Sakurada (1904- ) of the College of Engineering, Kyoto University, once a student of Hess at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem, began a series of X-ray investigations of natural and synthetic high polymers with Hutino. K. Tanaka (1904- ) became the professor of physics succeeding Yoshida and the leader of the X-ray and electron diffraction group at the College of Science, Kyoto University. A book on X-ray crystallography written by Yoshida and Tanaka appeared in the thirties and was of great help to young students who wanted to advance in this field. E. Suito, who has for many years been engaged in electron microscopic studies of fine powder systems, has extended his study into electron diffraction at the Institute for Chemical Research attached to the University.

Now we pass on to the Ito school in Tokyo. T. Ito (1898- ) finished in 1923 his student course of geology at the University of Tokyo, and went to Kyoto University for further study in petrology. After a short time he was called back to the University of Tokyo, and in 1925 went to Zurich to work with P. Niggli at the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule. There he formed his thorough background of structural crystallography, and studied especially the topological structure analysis of the Niggli school. His paper on the diamond lattice complex in the orthorhombic system appeared in 1928.30 The next year he visited W. L. Bragg in Manchester and learned the methods of X-ray crystal analysis. His X-ray papers, with J. West, on the crystal structure of hemimorphite31 and of bertrandite31 were published in 1932. When he came back to Tokyo, he became professor of mineralogy, University of Tokyo, and since then has been very active in the field of X-ray crystallography. Influenced by the study of Kôzu mentioned above, he has long been interested in problems such as crystal structures of rock-forming minerals, especially the felspar group, mode of twinning, theoretical extension of space groups, etc. In 1950 he published a book entitled X-ray Studies on Polymorphism (Maruzen, Tokyo), which covers the work done in his school during the last War and was not published elsewhere. In 1949 Ito devised a new general method of lattice determination based on the Debye-Scherrer pattern. This is a development of the old idea of C. Runge (1917). In Ito's method use is made of the method of lattice reduction devised by Delaunay (1933), which Ito had noticed quite early. His students active in the X-ray analysis of minerals and organic compounds are R. Sadanaga, Y. Takéuchi, N. Morimoto, Y. Iitaka, K. Doi and others. Sadanaga succeeded Ito after his retirement. M. Nakahira, who was once with Nishikawa and then with G. W. Brindley, later became a lecturer in the Department of Mineralogy of the University. Nakahira and T. Sudo, of the Tokyo University of Education, are known for their X-ray investigations of clay minerals.

In the Osaka region, Osaka University was established in the early thirties. In the Department of Applied Physics and Precision Machinery, Faculty of Engineering, S. Tanaka, G. Shinoda, K. Kojima and S. Nagata, all from the Kyoto school, have been engaged in applications of X-ray methods to metallographic and other problems and in the instrumentation for X-ray and electron diffraction studies. In the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, I. Nitta and T. Watanabé, both from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research already mentioned, undertook the project of crystal analysis of organic compounds. In 1937 two-dimensional Fourier syntheses of electron density distribution in tetragonal pentaerythritol were carried out by them for the first time in Japan. They became interested in hydrogen-bonded structures of mainly organic crystals and also in orientational and rotational disorder in molecular crystals; the latter are related to the phase of the so-called plastic crystals of J. Timmermans (1938) and form a significant approach to the physics and chemistry of the liquid state. The X-ray and other physico-chemical studies of such problems have been made by them and their students such as R. Kiryama, S. Seki, K. Sakurai, T. Oda, I. Taguchi, K. Osaki, Y. Saito, M. Kakudo, S. Hirokawa, R. Shiono, Y. Okaya, Y. Tomiie, M. Atoji, and many others. In 1952 Okaya and Nitta published a paper containing an elementary derivation of linear inequalities for phase determination. Sakurai devised a graphical method applicable to the Harker-Kasper inequalities. Recently Taguchi, S. Naya and Oda developed a theory of inequalities in a general manner by use of matrix theory. Y. Saito and K. Nakatsu determined absolute configurations of some complex salts. T. Matsubara of the Department of Physics made some improvements in the theory of X-ray diffuse scattering by using matrix calculations, and together with Oda applied these to some actual cases of plastic crystals. It is to be added that Ryuzo Ueda, who is now a professor of the Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo, was before with Nitta and Watanabe. Dating back to 1935, Y. Go, once with O. Kratky in the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Faserstoff-forschung and then with K. H. Meyer at the University of Geneva, returned to Japan and joined the staff of the Department of Chemistry of Osaka University bringing the technique of the Weissenberg goniometer. He established a laboratory of polymer science and began X-ray and electron diffraction studies of polymers with S. Nagata and J. Kakinoki. After the War the latter became a professor of physics of Osaka City University, and there he has led a group in X-ray and electron diffraction studies. Recently Kakinoki and Y. Komura developed the theoretical calculation of intensities from irregular layer lattices by use of a matrix method. The Institute of Industrial and Scientific Research attached to Osaka University was opened in 1939. There Z. Nishiyama, already mentioned as a student of Honda, carried out X-ray studies of martensite, of age-hardening of alloys and of the nickel oxide structure. He has trained Y. Shimomura, S. Nagashima and others. K. Kojima, from the Kyoto school, has been engaged in the determination of internal stress in metallic materials by means of X-ray diffraction, along with S. Karashima.

In Hiroshima University, until very recently T. Fujiwara, (1897- ) as a professor of physics, Faculty of Science, was active in research and teaching of metal physics using X-ray methods. As already mentioned he is a student of U. Yoshida of Kyoto University. He is known for his studies of divergent beam X-ray photographs and for growing single metal crystals. Incidentally, T. Imura, now at the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, developed the study of divergent beam photographs in the Department of Metallurgy, University of Osaka Prefecture. S. Yoshida is one of the best known among the students of Fujiwara and has followed the same line as his teacher. In the same Department H. Tazaki is also known for his structure analysis of boric acid and other inorganic compounds.

References

1. T. Terada, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 60 (1913); Nature, 91, 135 (1913).

2. T. Terada, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 290 (1914).

3. T. Terada, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 292 (1914).

4. S. Nishikawa and S. Ono, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 7, 131 (1913).

5. S. Nishikawa, Proc. Math. Phys. Soc. Tokyo, 8, 199 (1915).

6. Y. Sakisaka, Jap. J. Phys., 4, 171 (1927); Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 12, 189 (1930).

7. Y. Sakisaka and I. Sumoto, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 13, 211 (1931).

8. S. Nishikawa, Y. Sakisaka and I. Sumoto, Phys. Rev., 38, 1078 (1931).

9. E. Fukushima, Bull. Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 14, 1105, 1199 (1935); 15, 1 (1936).

10. Y. Kakiuchi, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 23, 637 (1941).

11. S. Miyake, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 23, 377, 810 (1941); J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 2, 98 (1947).

12. S. Yoshida, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 38, 263 (1941).

13. T. Muto, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 31, 153 (1937).

14. H. Bethe, Ann. Physik (Lpz.), 87, 55 (1928).

15. T. Yamaguti, Proc. Phys. Math. Soc. Japan, 12, 203 (1930); 14, 1, 57 (1932) ; 16, 95 (1934); 17, 58 (1935); 18, 372 (1936); 21, 375 (1939).

16. G. Asahara, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 1, 23 (1922) ; Jap. J. Chem., 1, 35 (1922).

17. G. Asahara, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 2, 273 (1925).

18. H. Nakamura, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 2, 287 (1925).

19. T. Sasahara, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 2, 277 (1925).

20. T. Sasahara, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 5, 82 (1926).

21. H. Shiba and T. Watanabé, Compt. rend., 193, 1421 (1931); T. Watanabé, Sci. Papers Inst. Phys. Chem. Research, Tokyo, 21, 40 (1933).

22. S. Kôzu and Y. Endö Sci. Reports Tôhoku Imp. Univ., (III) 1, 1 (1921); S. Kôzu and K. Wada, J. Geol. Soc. Tokyo, 30, 342 (1923).

23. S. Kôzu, Jap. J. Geol., 9, Abstr. 1-2 (cancrinite); K. Takané, Proc. Imp. Acad. Japan, 8, 308 (1932) (bronzite); S. Kôzu and K. Takané, ibid., 9, 56, 105 (1933) (cancrinite); K. Takané, ibid., 9, 9 (1933) (vesuvianite); ibid., 9, 113 (1933) (diaspore); ibid., 9, 524 (1933) (enargite).

24. M. Yamada, Sci. Reports Tôhoku Imp. Univ., II, 447 (1923).

25. M. Yamada, Phil. Mag., 45, 241 (1923).

26. A. Ono, Mem. Coll. Eng. Kyushu Imp. Univ., 2, 241, 261 (1922); 3, 195, 267, 287, (1925); Proc. 2nd. Intern. Congr. Appl. Mechanics, Zurich (1926); Proc. 3rd. Intern. Congr. Appl. Mechanics, Stockholm (1930); Proc. Japan Acad., 26, (9) 14 (1950).

27. S. Tanaka, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ;, 8A, 319 (1925).

28. T. Fujiwara, Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ;, 8A, 339 (1925).

29. U. Yoshida, Jap. J. Phys., 4, 133 (1927).

30. T. Ito, Z. Krist., 67, 341 (1928).

31. T. Ito and J. West, Z. Krist., 83, 1 (hemimorphite), 384 (bertrandite) (1932).


First published for the International Union of Crystallography 1962 by N.V.A. Oosthoek's Uitgeversmaatschappij, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Digitised 1999 for the IUCr XVIII Congress, Glasgow, Scotland
© 1962, 1999 International Union of Crystallography

Photographic record of crystallographic activities in Japan

The complete IUCr photographic archive includes thousands of photographs. Here we include a collection illustrating activities in this country. This image is selected randomly from the galleries listed below (IUCr Congress and General Assembly, 2008).

Photo galleries

1993 Tsukuba Big Diff commissioning
1982 Nikko Sagamore VII